Two rival TV brands use very similar acronyms to describe theirbut Samsung's QLED and LG's OLED are as different as dogs and cats. For the last few years Samsung, the , has been branding its best TVs "QLED." Its is massive, with three different series that have , numerous mainstream versions and design-conscious models like , and the all-new that all bear the ubiquitous Q. Meanwhile LG's include six series, from the relatively affordable BX to the crazy-expensive 8K ZX to, yes, an RX that .
Based on the last few years of, LG's OLED TVs have all delivered better overall image quality than Samsung QLED TVs. The latest example pitted the , both high-end 65-inch sets that cost $1,800. The LG OLED won handily, with superior contrast and off-angle viewing. The Samsung was brighter but overall it didn't stand up to the OLED.
The OLED vs. QLED battle goes beyond Samsung and LG. In late 2019including the and . Both are excellent, the best TV for the money and the best-performing non-OLED TV we tested last year, respectively. And other brands beyond LG also sell OLED TVs including Sony and, later in 2020, , and the No. 3 TV maker in the US, .
We haven't tested the latest crop of 2020 QLED and OLED models yet -- they start shipping in spring -- but based on what we've seen in the past we continue to expect OLED to produce superior image quality to QLED. Here's why.
A QLED TV is just an LCD TV with quantum dots
Let's start with a quick summary of the two technologies.
- OLED stands for "organic light emitting diode."
- QLED (according to Samsung) stands for "quantum dot LED TV."
- OLED is a fundamentally different technology from LCD, the major type of TV today.
- QLED is a variation of LED LCD, adding a quantum dot film to the LCD "sandwich."
- OLED is "emissive," meaning the pixels emit their own light.
- QLED, like LCD, is, in its current form, "transmissive" and relies on an LED backlight.
The main takeaway is that QLED is closer to, which I (and most other experts) consider a distinctly different class of television, much like .
are microscopic molecules that, when hit by light, emit their own, differently colored light. In QLED TVs, the dots are contained in a film, and the light that hits them is provided by an LED backlight. That light then travels though a few other layers inside the TV, including a liquid crystal (LCD) layer, to create the picture. The light from the LED source is transmitted through the layers to the screen's surface, which is why we say it's "transmissive."
Samsung has been using quantum dots to augment its LCD TVs, and debuted the . Samsung says those quantum dots have evolved over time -- that color and light output have improved, for example. In my experience however, improvements caused by better quantum dots are much less evident than those caused by other image quality factors (see below).
Other TV makers also use quantum dots in LCD TVs, includingand , but don't call them QLED TVs.
An OLED TV is not an LCD TV at all
LCD is the dominant technology in flat-panel TVs and has been for a long time. It's cheaper than OLED, especially in larger sizes, and numerous panel makers worldwide, including LG itself, can manufacture it.
OLED is different because it doesn't use an LED backlight to produce light. Instead, light is produced by millions of individual OLED subpixels. The pixels themselves -- tiny dots that compose the image -- emit light, which is why it's called an "emissive" display technology. That difference leads to all kinds of picture quality effects, some of which favor LCD (and QLED), but most of which benefit OLED.
Aside from the US brands mentioned above, Panasonic, Philips,and others sell OLED TVs in Europe. All use panels manufactured by , however.
QLED vs. OLED: image quality compared
Based on my reviews, here are some general comparisons I've made between the two.
QLED TV picture quality varies more than OLED. Samsung and TCL each have multiple QLED series and the most expensive perform a lot better than the cheaper ones. That's mainly because the biggest improvements in the picture quality of QLED sets don't have much to do with quantum dots. Instead they're the result of, bright highlights and better viewing angles, which help them significantly outperform QLED (and non-QLED) TVs that lack those extras.
Meanwhile every OLED TV I've reviewed has very similar image quality -- all have earned a 10/10 in picture quality in my tests. There is some variation among different OLED TVs, but they're not nearly as significant as the differences between various QLED TV series.
OLED has better contrast and black level. One of the most important image quality factors is black level, and their emissive nature means OLED TVs can turn unused pixels off completely, for literally local dimming, let some light through, leading to more washed-out, grayer black levels and blooming around bright sections.. QLED/LCD TVs, even the best ones with the most effective full-array
QLED is brighter. The brightest QLED and LCD TVs can get brighter than any OLED model, which is a particular advantage in bright rooms and with. In my tests, however, OLED TVs can still get plenty bright for most rooms, and their superior contrast still allows them to deliver a better overall HDR image than any QLED/LCD TV I've tested.
OLED has better uniformity and viewing angles. With LCD-based displays, different areas of the screen can appear brighter than others all the time, and backlight structure can also be seen in some content. Even the best LCDs also fade, lose contrast and become discolored when seen from seats other than the sweet spot directly in front of the screen. OLED TVs have almost perfectly uniform screens and maintain fidelity from all but the most extreme angles.
Resolution, color, video processing and other image quality factors are basically the same. Most QLED and OLED have the same, and both can achieve too. Neither technology has major inherent advantage in color or video processing areas. Check out for more details.
QLED can get bigger and smaller (and cheaper)
There are only four sizes of OLED TV on the market today: 55-, 65-, 77- and 88-inch, with a 48-inch version on sale later in 2020. Since the 77- and 88-inch cost $4,000 andrespectively, there's really only three sizes most TV shoppers can afford.
Meanwhile Samsung's QLED TVs come in 32, 43-, 49-, 55-, 65-, 75-, 82-, 85- and, yes, 98-inch sizes. Of course non-QLED LCD TVs can get even smaller.
One big advantage, so to speak, that QLED and LCD have over OLED is the cost of mainstream sizes over 65 inches. Large televisions are theand show no signs of slowing down. As I mentioned above, costs $4,000. Meanwhile costs $2,600, costs $2,000 and the cheapest 75-inch QLED, the Q60R, is just $1,500. Sure none of those QLEDs can beat an OLED but they do cost thousands less.
In 55- and 65-inch sizes, the highest-end, best-performing QLED models like the Samsung Q90 and the 8K resolution Q900A cost more than the cheapest OLED TV. There are numerous other, less-expensive QLED series as well, however, albeit with worse image quality.
What about OLED burn-in?
Burn-in happens when a persistent part of the image onscreen -- navigation buttons on a phone, or a channel logo, news ticker or a scoreboard on a TV, for example -- remains as a ghostly background no matter what else appears onscreen. All OLED screens can burn-in, and from everything we know, they're more susceptible than LCD displays, including QLED.
All things considered, however, burn-in shouldn't be a problem for most people. From all of the evidence we've seen, burn-in is typically caused by leaving a single, static image element, like a channel logo, onscreen for a very long time, repeatedly. That's an issue if you keep Fox News, ESPN or MSNBC onscreen for multiple hours every day and don't watch enough other programming, for example. But as long as you vary what's displayed, chances are you'll never experience burn-in.
Check outfor more.
Future outlook for OLED vs. QLED TVs
Until I pit the best 2020 QLED TVs against the best OLED TVs I won't know for sure which one wins this year, but as I mentioned above, I'd bet on OLED.
For 2019 and 2020 Samsung and TCL improved their high-end QLED image quality again in an effort to beat OLED --and , respectively -- while LG has, , mostly stood pat. The C9 wasn't that much better than its predecessors, and I expect LG's 2020 models will offer similarly incremental improvements. But given the basic differences between OLED and QLED tech, it would definitely surprise me if those 2020 QLED improvements allowed it to beat OLED overall.
What about the future?of its own ( ), investing 11.1 billion in new facilities to create "QD display" tech that's basically OLED with a different name -- and quantum dots, natch. It wants to start production in 2021, which means we might see some prototypes the following year.
Separately, and further down the road, Samsung is researching contrast ratio of OLED, with better power efficiency, better color and more. That's pretty exciting, but it'll be a few years before we see emissive QLED TVs available for sale. Hopefully by then they'll think up a new acronym (EQLEDs?)., which dispenses with the liquid crystal layers and uses quantum dots themselves as the light source. Emissive QLED TVs have the potential to match the absolute black levels and "infinite"
Before that we'll get. It's another emissive technology, once again spearheaded by Samsung, that seems closer to market than direct-view quantum dot (it's on sale now ). As you might guess from the name, it uses millions of teeny-tiny LEDs as pixels. MicroLED has the potential for the same perfect black levels as OLED, with no danger of burn-in. It can deliver higher brightness than any current display technology, wide-gamut excellent color and doesn't suffer the viewing angle and uniformity issues of LCD. It's also . It doesn't involve quantum dots, at least not yet, but who knows what might happen when it comes to market. QDMLED, anyone?
For now, however, OLED rules the picture quality roost over QLED.
Originally published Feb. 8, 2017.
Update, February 3, 2020: This article has been updated with new information from CES 2020.