New Tesla Battery tech reveal event in 27 minutes
New Tesla Battery tech reveal event in 27 minutes
27:39

New Tesla Battery tech reveal event in 27 minutes

Cars
The three parts of a sustainable energy future are sustainable energy generation, storage, and electric vehicles. So to achieve to to accelerate, accelerate the transition to sustainable energy must produce more EBS there needs to be affordable, and a lot more energy storage, while building factories faster and with far less investment. Goal number one is a terawatt hour scale battery production. So, Terra is the new Giga and a terawatt is 1000 times more than a gigawatt. So we used to talk in terms of gigawatts. In the future we'll be talking in terms of terawatt hours. So this is a, what's needed in order to transition the world to sustainability. Yeah, and you can see it's a, we're talking about 100 x growth in batteries for electric vehicles to achieve this mission. And we are going to get there, just a matter of how fast and our intention is to accelerate it. And then on the grid side We have a similar mountain to climb 1600 times growth from today's grid batteries to go 100% renewable on the grid and to take all the existing heating fossil fuel uses in homes and businesses 100% Electric, So today's batteries cannot scale fast enough. They're just too small, four Giga, Giga Nevada. 150 gigawatt hours per year is like what we probably expect to make out of there. But this is really pretty small in the grand scheme of things. That's only point 0.15 terawatt hours. We would need 135 fully built out in Nevada gigafactories to achieve 20 terawatt hours a year. It's not scalable enough of solution. We need a dramatic rethink of the cell manufacturing system. To scale as fast as we can and should. It's not just the question of like, if we had $2 trillion tomorrow you could make this. It's not that easy. You actually need to organize [UNKNOWN] number of people, build a lot of machines, build the machines that make the machines. And so it's incredibly important to have that effort yield the most number of batteries. So and then go to obviously we need to make more affordable cars. The You know? I think one of the things that troubles me the most is that we don't yet have a truly affordable car and that that is something that we will make in the future. But in order to do that, we've got to get the cost of batteries down we've got to make and we've got to be better at manufacturing And and we need to do something about this curve this curve the curve of the cost per kilowatt hour of batteries is not improving fast enough. So we give it given us a lot of thought over many years to say, okay? How can we radically improve the the cost per kilowatt hour curve? It's been somewhat flattening out actually in recent years. So I mean, early growth was promising, but you can see we're kind of plateauing. So that's that's what's motivating us to rethink how cells are produced in design. That's why we got battery day. Yeah, to make the best cars in the world. We designed vehicles and factories from the ground up. Next Yeah. And now we do this for batteries as well. We have a plan to have the cost per kilowatt hour. And it's not a plan that rests on a single innovation, some research project that will never see the light of day. It's a plan that has taken creative engineering. And industrialization across every facet of what makes us sell into a battery pack from raw material to the finished thing. And we're gonna go through that plan with you today step by step. And build up how we get to these goals and how we accelerate this transition and make our vehicles and our grid batteries more affordable. We've got the cap and the can, negative and positive terminals of the cell. When you open that cell, you've got a tab connected to those terminals. What we call the jelly roll, which is the wound electrodes on the inside. You can actually see what this looks like as you unwind it. This is over a meter long in a typical 21-70 cell So it's quite a long winding process. And you can see the tabs still there. And then to explain what's actually going on here. We've identified we've got anode, cathode separator, positive and negative terminal. Watch what happens as we. There we go. Discharge the cell got lithium moving from anode to cathode. And then the reverse. When we charge the cell, anode moving from lithium moving from cathode to anode across the separator. This is the basic of what makes all lithium ion batteries whether there was no matter what the form factor is. And when we look at what happened today, at least in our products, we've moved from the 18 650 form factor to the 2170 form factor through great collaboration with our partners, Panasonic new partners like LG and CTL, and probably others in the future. And this was this was a evolutionary step going from 1865 to 2170. Bringing 50% more energy into the cell. But when we look to the ideal cell design if we were to do it ourselves, we need to go beyond just what we're looking at us in front of us and and study the full the full spectrum of options. So as you can see, we we kind of swept the key figures of merit How much we can reduce the cost and how much vehicle range increases as we change the outer diameter of the cell. We found a sweet spot somewhere around 46 millimeters. There are problems as you make cells larger In fact, super charging and thermals in general become really challenging as you make bigger cells and this was the challenge that our team Set our sights on to overcome. And we did we came up with this tablets architecture that maybe you've heard about. That basically removes the thermal problem from the equation and allows us to go to the absolute lowest cost, form factor and the simplest manufacturing process. And this is what we mean when we talk about tablets. It's kind of a beautiful thing. We basically took the existing foils, laser patterned them and enabled dozens of connections into the active material through this shingled spiral you can see, with simpler manufacturing, fewer parts 50 millimeter versus 250 millimeter electrical path length, which is how we get all the thermal benefits. Yeah, this is important to appreciate like basically the, distance that that electron has to travel and, it's just much less. So you actually have a shorter path length in a large tablets cell than you have in the smaller, So with [UNKNOWN] those are big deal. So eventhough the cell is bigger, it actually has more power. So, just of cell form factory change enables a 14% [UNKNOWN] per kilowatt hour reduction just that cell form factor change. Let's talk a little bit about what's in a cell factory. First, there's an electrode process Where the active materials are coated into films onto foils. Then those foil coated foils are wound in the in the winding process we just talked about where if you do have tabs you have to start and stop a lot. Then the jelly roll is assembled into the can, sealed, filled with electrolyte. And then sent to formation where the cell is charged for the first time and where the sort of the electrochemistry is set and the quality of the cell is verified. And we set out at every step of this process to try to take that inspiration we just showed, and think about how we make those processes fundamentally better and more scalable. And one of the most important process is where it all begins, the wet process of the electrode coding. And just to give you all a sense of scale, I'm gonna walk through what's in that wet process. You've got mixing where the powders are mixed with either a water or a solvent. Solvents for the cathode. That mix then goes into a large coat-and-dry oven where the slurry is coated onto the foil, huge ovens 10s of meters long dried, and that solvent then has to be recovered. You can see the solvent recovery system. And then finally, the coated foil is compressed to the final density. And when you're looking at this, you're like wow, that's a lot of equipment for one step especially when you consider that little speck next to the coding oven is a person. This is serious iron involved in making batteries. Wouldn't it be great if we could skip that solvent step, which is one of those dig a ditch and then fill it kind of things where you put the solvent in and then take it out and recycle it and just go straight to dry mix to coat. And that's what the dry process really is about. And in the most basic form [BLANK_AUDIO] You can see it here on a benchtop literally powder into film, as simple as that becomes this. Yeah, so you can see the motivation, a 10 times reduction in footprint, a 10 times reduction in energy and a massive reduction in investment. But this is a really profound improvement. Again, for the people that know battery manufacturing, this is gigantic. We'll probably be on machine revision six or seven by the time we do large-scale production. The rate at which the machines are being improved is extremely rapid. Literally every three or four months, there's a new rev The key to a high performing assembly line is accomplishing processes while in motion continuous motion. And thinking of the line as a highway, Max velocity down the highway no start and stop no city driving. That'd be those stoplights and traffic lights or anything you want. The highway, not the highway. Yeah and together with our internal design team That makes this equipment and designs this equipment we coupled thinking about how to make the best sell with thinking about how to make the best equipment so that we could accomplish the fastest parts per minute rates on all of these tools. And through all of that development, we're able to get to the point where we can implement assembly lines. One line 20 gigawatt hours, seven times increase in output per line. And when you're thinking about scalability and pure effort, having one line be seven x the capability is just effort multiplying. Yeah. In a typical cell factory formation represents 25% of the investment And what is formation is its charging and discharging cells and verifying the quality of the cell. Turns out, we've charged and discharged billions and billions of cells in our vehicle. So we know a thing or two about that. The typical formation setup is you charge and discharge each cell individually in our car. We charge thousands of cells at once, and we took our principal and our power electronics leveraging Power wall vehicle battery management systems, and others to dramatically improve the formation equipment cost effectiveness, and density 86% reduction in formation investment 75% reduction in footprint. So, essentially what this translates to based on what we know today is about a 75% reduction. In the investment per kilowatt hour or gigawatt hour, it's it's just a, we're able to, from a volume standpoint actually get what in a smaller form factor than Giga Nevada. We're able to get many times the, the cell output, so You can see like basically we can get a terawatt hour in less space than it took to make a gigawatt hour, you know 150 gigawatt hours. As it tweeted out earlier we will continue to use our cell suppliers the Panasonic and LG and CTL and So this is 100 gigawatt hours supplemental to what we buy from suppliers. And yeah, essentially this this is like reduce our weighted average cost of a sale because it does allows us to make a lot more cars and a lot more stationary storage and And then long term we're expecting to make on the order of 3000 gigawatt hours or or three terawatt hours per year. I think we can we only we've got a good chance of achieving this actually before 2030 but I highly confident that we could do it by by 2030. And not only is all of that manufacturing innovation, fantastic for enabling scale It's also an additional 18% reduction in dollar per kilowatt hour at the battery pack level. So we have a manufacturing system, we've got a cell design, what are the active materials we're gonna put in that cell design? Let's talk about the anode. First, let's talk about silicon. Why is silicon awesome? It's awesome because it's the most abundant element. In the Earth's crust after oxygen, which means it's everywhere it's sand. Yeah, that is silicon oxide. [LAUGH] And it happens to store nine times more lithium and graphite, which is the typical, no material and lithium ion batteries today. So why isn't everybody using it? The main reason is because the challenge with silicon is that it expands forex. When fully charged with lithium, and basically all of that expansion stress on the particle, the particle start cracking, they start electrically isolating, you lose capacity, the energy retention of the battery starts to fade and it also comes up with a passivation layer that has to keep reforming as the particles expand. What we're proposing is a step change in capability. In a step change in cost, and what that really is, is to just go to the raw metallurgical silicon itself, don't engineer the base metal. Just start with that and design for it to expand in how you think of the particle in the electrode design and how you code it. Yeah, I'm not sure if you saw those basically $1 Is COVID ours?>> Yeah. Basically if you use simple silicon, it's dramatically less than even the silicon that is currently used in the batteries that are made today. And you can use a lot more of it. The anode would cost yet with this silicon and the anode costs $1 and 20 cents a kilowatt hour and in the end, By leveraging this silicon to its potential, we can increase the range of our vehicles by an additional 20%. Just this improvement, Yeah, it gets cheaper and longer range. Yeah, and when we take that anode cost reduction, we're looking at another 5% dollar per kilowatt hour reduction at the battery pack level. And there's more. Let's talk about cathodes. What is a battery cathode? Cathodes are like bookshelves, where the metal, you know, the nickel, the cobalt, the manganese, or aluminium is like the shelf and the lithium is the book. And really, what sets apart these different metals, is how many books of lithium they can fit on the shelves and how sturdy the shelves are. It's tough to exactly figure out what the right analogy is to explain cathode and an anode. But a bookshelf is probably a pretty good one. In the sense that you need you need a stable structure to contain the islands. So you want a structure that does not crumble or get gooey or basically that that holds its shape. Both the cathode and the anode, as you're moving these ions back and forth. Yeah, it needs to retain its structure. So, if it doesn't retain a structure, then you lose cycle life and your battery capacity drops very quickly. The thing to consider is just fundamentally what the nickel that the metals are capable of. And that's what we have on the chart here, dollar per kilowatt hour cathode of just the metal using just elemi, fundamental exchange prices, versus the energy density of just the cathode. And you can see nickel is the cheapest and the highest energy density and that's why increasing nickel is a goal of ours and really everybody's in the energy and in the battery industry. But one of the reasons why cobalt is even used at all is because it is a very stable bookshelf. And the challenge with going to pure nickel is stabilizing that bookshelf with only nickel. And that's what we've been working on with our high nickel cathode development, which has zero cobalt in it. Leveraging novel coatings and novel coatings and opens We can get a 15% reduction in katha dollar per kilowatt hour. So, in order to scale, we really need to make sure that we're not constrained by total nickel availability. I actually spoke with the CEOs of the biggest mining company in the world said please make more nickel is very important. And so I think they are going to make more nickel But there's also I think we need to have a kind of a three tiered approach to batteries. So starting with iron that's kind of like a medium range, and then nickel manganese as sort of a medium plus intermediate, and then high nickel for long range applications like cybertruck and the semi Something like a like a semi truck, it's extremely important to have high energy density in order to get long range. So, and just to give sort of iron a bit more time like the below the, you know if you look at the, what else per kilogram at the cathode level of, of iron It looks like nickels twice as good. But when you've fully considered at the pack level everything else taking into account Nikolas about maybe 50 or 60% better than, than iron. So iron is not is a little better than it would seem. When you when you look at it at the pack level fully considered It's not as good as Nickel, Nickel like 50 to 60% better, but it's still it's actually pretty good. And so, you know, good for stationary storage and for medium range applications where energy density is not Paramount, and then like so for intermediate it's kind of a nickel, manganese. And it's relatively straightforward to do a cathode that's two thirds nickel one third manganese, which would then allow us to make 50% more cell volume with the same amount of nickel and with very little energy trade off. Yeah, just enough to have you still want to use 100% nickel for something like a Semi Truck but but really not much of a sacrifice. Yeah, because a lot of people spend time talking about the metals. Actually the cathode process itself is a big target 35% of the cathode dollar per kilowatt hour is just in transferring it into its final form. And so we see that as a big target and we decided to take that on Here's a view of the traditional cathode process. Effectively, if you start at the left and you have the metal from the mine, the first thing that happens is the metal from the mine is changed into an intermediate thing called a metal sulfate. Because that's just happened to be what chemists wanted a long time ago. And then when you're making the cathode, you have to take this intermediate thing called metal sulfate, add chemicals, add a whole bunch of water, a whole bunch of stuff happens in the middle, and at the end, you get that little bit of cathode and a whole bunch of wastewater and byproducts. It's like how it was done before, And then they connected the dots, but really didn't think of the whole thing from like a first principle standpoint, saying how do we get from the nickel ore in the ground to the finished nickel product for a battery? And so we've looked at the entire value chain and said, How can we make this as simple as possible? And that's what we're proposing here with our process. As you can see a whole lot less is going on here. We get rid of the intermediate metal water final profit product cathode recirculate the water, no waste water at all. And when you summarize all of that is to 66% reduction in capex investment, a 76 reduction in process cost and zero waste water. Much more scalable solution. Yeah [NOISE] And now that we have this process, obviously we're gonna go and start building our own cathode facility in North America and leveraging all of the North American resources that exist for nickel and lithium. And just doing that just localizing our cathode supply chain and production. We can reduce Miles traveled by all the materials that end up in the cathode by 80% which is huge for cost. Yeah clear cathode production would be part of our the Tesla cell production plant. So just be, you know, basically, you know, raw materials coming from the mind and from raw materials in mind outcomes of battery. But it is important to say okay, what is the smartest way to take the ore and extract the lithium and do so in an environmentally friendly way. And we actually discovered a, again looking at sort of first principles physics standpoint. Instead of just the way it's always been done is we've found that we can actually use table salt, sodium chloride To basically extract the lithium from the ore, we actually got rights to a lithium clay deposit in Nevada.>>Over 10,000 acres.>> Over 10,000 acres. And then the the nature of the mining is actually I think also very environmentally sensitive, in that we sort of take a chunk of dirt out of the ground. Remove the lithium and then put the chug of dirt back where it was. So it will look pretty much the same as before, and it will not look like terrible. And eventually, as we said at the beginning, when we get to this steady state 20 terawatt hours per year of production, we will transfer the entire non renewable fleet of both power plants. Home heating and batter and industry heating and end vehicles to electric and at that point, we have an awesome resource in those batteries to recycle to make new batteries so we don't need to do any more mining at that point and you can see why the the difference in the The value of the material coming back from the vehicle versus the ground, you'd always go to the vehicle and we recycle 100% of our vehicle batteries today. So there's an architecture that we've been wanting to Tesla for a long time, and we're finally we finally figured it out. And I think it's it's the way that all electric cars in the future will ultimately be made. It's the right way the right way to do things. So it starts with having a single piece casting or a single piece casting for the front body and the rear body. And in order to do this, we Commission be the largest casting machine that has ever been made. And it's currently working just over the road at our Fremont plant. We have the it's pretty sweet. Making the entire car making the entire rear section of the car in a single piece. High pressure die cast aluminium And in order to do this we actually had to develop our own alloy, because we wanted a high strength casting alloy that not did not require coatings or heat treatment that then interfaces to, we'll call it a structural battery. Where the battery for the first time will have dual use of the battery will both have They use as an energy device and as structure. So this is really quite profound. The effectively, but the non cell portion of the battery has negative mass. So we save so much mass in the rest of the vehicle. We save more mass in the rest of vehicle then the non cell portion of the battery So, it's like well, how do you really minimise the mass of a battery make it negative make the battery non cell portion of battery pack negative. So, it also allows us to pack the cells more densely because we do not have intermediate structure in the battery pack. So instead of having these like a supports and stabilizers and stringers and structural elements in the battery we now have a lot more space in the battery, because the pack itself is structural, so improves the mass efficiency of the battery. And then those castings are also quite important because you want to transfer load into the structural battery pack in a very smooth, continuous way. So you don't put arbitrary point loads into the battery. So you kind of have that you want to sort of feather the load out from the front and rear into the structural battery. It also allows us to use to move the cells closer to the centre of the of the car. Because we don't have the, in the top one, we've got that sort of all the supports and stuff. So the volumetric efficiency of the structural pack is as much better than a non-structural pack. And we actually bring the sales closer to the center. And, because they're closer to the center, it reduces the probability of. Have a side impact of potentially contacting the cells because it has to go in any kind of side impact has to go further in order to reach the sales. It also proves what's called the polar moment of inertia. Which Is that a thing of like when there's a Like ice skater arms outer arms in arms and you rotate faster. So if you can bring things closer to the center, you reduce the polymer inertia and that means you can use the car maneuvers better. It just feels better. You don't want know why but it just, it just feels more agile. Like says this so 10% mass production and the body of the car 14% range increase 370 fewer parts. So we're looking at over 50% reduction in investment per gigawatt hour 35% reduction in floor space and we'll continue to improve that as we make the vehicle factory of the future. And in addition to the improvements we just said on enabling additional range and improving the structural performance of the vehicle, it is worth another 7% dollar per kilowatt hour reduction at the battery pack level. Bring our total reductions now to 56% dollars per kilowatt hour. Yeah, range increase we're unlocking up to 54% increase in range for our vehicles and energy density for energy products. 56% reduction in dollars per kilowatt hour at the battery pack level and as 69% reduction in investment per gigawatt hour, which is the true enabler. When we talk back about how do we achieve this scale problem here. What does this mean for our future products? So we're confident that long-term [INAUDIBLE] design and manufacturer [UNKNOWN] a compelling $25,000 electric vehicle. And we should probably talk about the [INAUDIBLE] Yeah, what about that? [SOUND] [MUSIC] [NOISE] Hey guys another three seconds or more to take up that time. So, we're confident the Model S plaid will achieve the best track time of any production vehicle ever, of any kind, two door or otherwise [BLANK_AUDIO]

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