The robot rests delicately atop a power line, balanced high above the ground, almost as if it's floating. Like a short, stocky tightrope walker, it gradually makes its way forward, leaving a string of cable in its wake. When it comes to a pole, it gracefully elevates its body to pass the roadblock and keep chugging along.
This isn't a circus robot. Facebook developed the machine to install fiber cables on medium-voltage power lines around the globe. The aim is to make it cheaper for internet service providers to build out their networks using super-fast and reliable fiber connections. Installing fiber is a pricey endeavor, limiting where it can be deployed. If the cost of installation goes down, says Facebook, so too does the cost of service for the end user.
The social network and Mark Zuckerberg, its chief executive and founder, have long wanted. The fiber-installation robot -- code-named Bombyx, which is Latin for silkworm -- and a slimmer fiber-optic cable that's housed inside the machine's body are part of that push. The robot crawls along power lines and weaves its streamlined fiber cables around the lines already in place. It "dramatically lowers" the cost of fiber deployment by using existing electrical infrastructure, Facebook says.
The social networking giant plans to nonexclusively license the technology and will launch a pilot program with partners next year. It won't be building the robot -- which doesn't have a set retail price -- but will count on partners to manufacture and sell it.
"Half the world's population is not connected," said Karthik Yogeeswaran, a wireless systems engineer in Facebook's connectivity group and the brains behind the new robot. About 80% of those people live under existing 3G or better networks but still aren't online because they can't afford it, he said in an interview with CNET.
"Fiber has orders of magnitude more bandwidth than basically any other technology," Yogeeswaran said. "We want to allow abundance so that more people can get more data."
While carriers are busy rolling out super-speedy 5G wireless service, pockets of the world still have slow internet, and 3.5 billion people have no access at all. The novel has made the need for high-speed, broadband internet even more obvious. In some places, hospitals, schools and other critical organizations don't have fast-enough internet to function. As people work from home, they require steady connections to get their tasks done, and kids need internet access to complete their digital coursework. Without connectivity, none of that is possible, disadvantaging people who live in places without reliable, fast internet access. Facebook wants to help, but it'll be hard-pressed to succeed where
In the US, the federal and state governments have provided billions of dollars to companies to build out speedy fiber networks, but the installation is still pricey and time consuming. Digging up ground and putting fiber in can cost tens of thousands of dollars per mile to install. In emerging markets, lack of access to broadband can be even more pronounced. Even if service is available, it can be too pricey for many people to afford beyond low data-cap, pay-as-you-go plans.
"While the pandemic isn't responsible for the digital divide, it's exposing ... the hard truth of the significance of that," Yael Maguire, vice president of engineering for Facebook's Connectivity Lab, said in an interview. "The pandemic is certainly unprecedented for all of us in many ways."
Facebook isn't the only tech company working on fiber. Google, as well as traditional carriers like Verizon, have rolled out fiber but have struggled along the way. Like Google, Facebook benefits when more people are online and able to use its services, whether it's the core social network, Instagram or messaging service WhatsApp.
Cables and robots
Three years ago, Facebook started looking at a more affordable way to deliver high-speed internet through fiber-optic cables. Yogeeswaran said the idea of using power lines to support the fiber cables came to him while he was traveling through rural Africa. Uganda was filled with medium-voltage power lines that emit between 10,000 to 35,000 volts, and he envisioned fiber installed alongside those cables.
Building a robot to install the fiber, high above the ground, made sense. While doing more research, Yogeeswaran learned about a method developed in the 1980s in which a machine would wind fiber cable around power lines.
"It never really caught on as a commercial success and that was partially because it was built using '80s technology," he said. "You had gas-powered motors and they kind of relied on humans moving these things across obstacles. You had to shut the power off."
One product developed in the UK called SkyWrap winds cable around power lines in remote areas and places where it would be tough for a human to reach the poles, such as above a river.
Traditionally, workers will lash a fiber cable to a wire attached to a pole rather than wrap it around. But there's a lot of preparation work that needs to be done beforehand to support the fiber cable. The task requires large crews of people and heavy equipment, which drives up the cost, Yogeeswaran said. Wrapping fiber cable around power lines cuts this time-consuming work because workers no longer need to make new space on the pole or pull the cable with a lot of tension so it doesn't fall. Facebook's approach would require two or three electric utility linemen, a pickup truck, spools of fiber cables only a few kilometers long, a robot and several other tools.
Medium-voltage power lines are also "thinner and weaker," so Facebook had to create a lighter robot, along with slimmer fiber cable that can resist damage from high temperatures and wind but still be small enough to be wound inside the robot's body.
Working with veteran cable designer Wayne Kachmar and other academic advisors and companies, Facebook and its partners created a fiber cable that's 4 millimeters in diameter. A typical aerial fiber cable can be between 10 to 13 millimeters in diameter. Cable used to wrap around power lines is about 7 millimeters in diameter.
Facebook then teamed up with New York-based ULC Robotics to design a robot that can wrap a cable around a power line as it moves forward, and clear obstacles such as an insulator and other objects on the pole without the help of a human. Instead of using a round heavy spool loaded with a kilometers' worth of cable, workers shed weight by forming the cable into a horseshoe shape and attaching it to the robot. That also makes it possible for the robot to clear obstacles by lifting up the fiber cable. As the robot passes an obstacle, it regains its balance, lowers the fiber cable and continues wrapping.
Importantly, Bombyx can safely wrap fiber around power lines that carry electricity, something that's difficult for humans to do. There's no need to cut power service to customers served by the line to install fiber using the robot. And it can install more than a kilometer of fiber in about an hour and a half.
Still, there's more work to be done before Facebook and its partners launch a pilot project. That includes making sure the robot can get the job done without requiring an engineer to oversee its work, working with electric companies and creating safe operating procedures.
Fiber's price tag
Today, millions of Americans lack broadband internet, defined as download speeds of 25 megabits per second and upload speeds of 3 mbps. The latest estimate from the US Federal Communications Commission says 18 million Americans, or roughly 5.6% of the population, go without fast connections. But certain segments are hit even harder. About 30% of people in rural areas lack broadband, as do 40% of the nation's schools and 60% of health care facilities outside major metropolitan areas.
US federal and state officials have made nationwide broadband access a priority, offering grants and other incentives to big internet service providers and small-town telephone companies to upgrade their networks. In February, the FCC approved a $20 billion fund to ensure that residents in rural areas of the US have access to broadband internet connections. But differing opinions exist about how best to deploy those funds, and outdated maps with insufficient detail make it tough to determine where the true need really is.
The situation in developing nations is even worse, with wide swaths of countries having little or no connectivity.
Fiber-optic lines typically are the best solution for spreading high-speed internet. Even, which are being turned on around the globe, rely on fiber as their backbone. Fiber can deliver gigabit speeds and is more reliable than wireless connections. The preferred way to deliver such high speeds to users is to build fiber straight to their homes. But that gets expensive fast.
A decade ago, many companies turned to fiber as the way to deliver internet to their customers. In 2010, Google launched its big push with fiber, promising to deliver service more than 100 times faster than what most Americans could access. ISPs in cities Google served lowered their prices and boosted speeds to compete. But in an illustration of the cost and difficulty of deploying fiber, Google in 2016 "paused" plans to roll out its internet service to new cities to explore other wireless options. Verizon also stopped rolling out its Fios fiber-optic internet service, which likewise connected to individual houses.
In 2019, 37% of US homes, or about 46.5 million, had access to fiber connections, up dramatically from 50,000 in 2002, according to trade group the Fiber Broadband Association. This month, Google unveiled its first new Google Fiber city in four years: West Des Moines, Iowa.
In developing countries, fiber installation costs around $10 per meter, Facebook said. That averages aerial fiber construction costs with pricier underground construction. In developed countries like the US, the price could be $20 or higher per meter, the company said. Overall, fiber deployment typically ranges from about $2 per meter in areas with looser installation guidelines and low labor costs, all the way up to $100 for underground installation in difficult soil conditions, according to Facebook.
The company estimates its technology will reduce the deployment cost of fiber in developing countries to $2 to $3 per meter. In developed countries, Facebook estimates the price tag of installing fiber would be less than $5 per meter.
The price of fiber cable itself has dropped, but labor costs remain high, something Facebook's robot could help address. While fiber may be the most expensive technology up front, it's still the most reliable and cheapest solution over the long term, experts say. Other cheaper options upfront include running fiber to a nearby tower that then beams the signal to homes (a technique called fixed wireless) or using co-ax or other cables to link homes to a nearby fiber-connected box called a node. Fixed wireless can be deployed at about one-seventh the cost of fiber and one-fifth the cost of cable, according to the Wireless Internet Service Providers Association.
Facebook's technology won't solve the "last mile" problem -- getting connectivity from a tower to a home -- but instead resembles fixed wireless offerings. Facebook sees its fiber robot as a way to "solve the mid-mile problem," Maguire said. But those last few hundred meters are often the most costly part of a deployment.
For that "last mile," Facebook has other products in the works.
No silver bullet
From the use of drones to lasers, Facebook has been experimenting since 2013 with different ways to make access to high-speed internet more affordable. That year, Zuckerberg said in a 10-page white paper that he believes connectivity is a "basic human right." Expanding internet access also gives Facebook an opportunity to rope in more users as more people go online. The company runs a connectivity lab that's part of an initiative called Internet.org.
But Facebook's plans to connect the world have also hit roadblocks.
In 2018, the social network quietlythat would use lasers to beam internet to remote areas -- something it had been developing for about four years. The company conducted two test flights . During its first test flight in 2016, the in the Arizona desert because of a "structural failure," but it had a smooth landing the following year.
Facebook's efforts to bring free basic internet services to developing countries have faced political backlash. In 2016, Discover that lets people browse text on any mobile website.because of concerns that it favored some internet services, including Facebook's, over others. The company denied the program threatened net neutrality -- -- and made changes to address the concerns. This year, in Peru, the company started testing a new app called
There are different products that providers can use to deliver high-speed internet service, but what works well in one area might not work well in another. Facebook, for example, has been mounting wireless devices known as "nodes" on polesthat it says is cheaper and faster than laying down fiber. But that system works well only in dense urban and suburban areas where there are a lot of buildings and poles because the nodes can't be farther than 250 meters apart -- otherwise the high frequency waves Terragraph uses can get disrupted by water and oxygen.
Installing fiber-optic cables underground in trenches is a more stable option than a wireless system, especially in areas with freezing weather, but that method can be pricey and slow due to permitting and other issues. Facebook's latest robot project focuses on wrapping fiber around power lines in the air on poles that are often found outside of city centers and wealthy communities.
"We really believe there is no silver bullet for connecting the world. There isn't going to be one technology or one business model that's going to get the entire job done," Maguire said. "Rather than focus on any kind of one-size-fits-all solution, we're looking at building blocks."
When it comes to that fiber-installation robot, Facebook is talking with potential partners around the globe. The company won't be making these robots itself or installing fiber lines. Instead, Facebook plans to license its designs to other companies.
One of the first is San Francisco-based NetEquity Networks, which aims to make high-speed internet access affordable within a decade for every human. Facebook will give NetEquity a nonexclusive, royalty-free license to deploy fiber networks using the technology and sell wholesale services to internet service providers and mobile network operators. After that, it's up to NetEquity and other Facebook licensees to decide where to roll out the robot and fiber.
"It's really going to be up to our partners and their interests of where they want to deploy the technology globally," Maguire said. "If there's interest in deploying it in the United States, we'd obviously be absolutely thrilled."