Someone has a heart attack every 40 seconds in the U.S., according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, making it a leading cause of death for Americans. Knowing what to do when one happens is essential. There are steps you can take to improve the chances of survival and potentially save a life when the unthinkable happens.
Here's how to survive a heart attack or help someone having one. For more tips about your health, learn how to check your heart metrics at home and CNET's recommendations for the best heart rate monitors. You'll also want to find out about one of the most important elements of your health: your blood type.
Common symptoms of a heart attack
When you think "heart attack," classic symptoms such as chest discomfort might first come to mind. But heart attacks can present differently in men and women, and in people with certain diseases, like diabetes.
Heart attack symptoms could include:
- Chest discomfort, pain or pressure that radiates up to your jaw, your back and/or your left shoulder
- Bad indigestion or nausea
- Extreme fatigue
- Shortness of breath
- Feeling generally unwell
"Essentially anything from the belly button up," says Dr. Khadijah Breathett, a heart failure transplant cardiologist and tenured associate professor of medicine at Indiana University. "Constant pressure should raise concern that you should see your doctor, and it's OK if it's something else. We'd rather have an individual come see a health care professional and get evaluated rather than toughing it out at home, because that is what contributes to the escalating risk of death."
1. Call 911, no matter what
If you feel any of the above symptoms, even if you aren't sure it's a heart attack, you should call 911 immediately, doctors recommend.
"If you feel unwell, or you're starting to have chest discomfort, seek medical attention quickly, because the sooner you get treated, the better," says Dr. Grant Reed, an interventional cardiologist and director of Cleveland Clinic's STEMI program. "A lot of patients ignore their symptoms, and by the time they come in, their heart muscle has already died."
The No. 1 indicator of how well you're going to do after a heart attack is how fast you recognize your symptoms, Reed adds. There's a strong relationship between when you start to have your heart attack (which is generally when symptoms start) and how fast doctors can open up the blocked coronary artery that's causing it -- the shorter the time, the better the outcomes, not just regarding survival but also the likelihood of heart failure or needing to be readmitted to the hospital.
When you get to the hospital, medical professionals will likely perform an electrocardiogram (EKG or ECG), which will determine the diagnosis of a heart attack. If it is a heart attack, you'll be taken to the cardiac catheterization laboratory, where a coronary angiography will be performed. If you have a blockage in your coronary artery, the doctors will offer treatment with a balloon and a stent to keep the artery open.
Many people are hesitant to seek emergency medical care due to a lack of insurance or immigration status. But in the US, hospitals are required to treat all people who come in with life-threatening emergencies.
"It's a lot better to be treated and deal with the financial ramifications after the fact," Grant says. In most cases, costs can be sorted out with the hospital, he adds.
2. Have an ambulance take you to the hospital
If you suspect you're having a heart attack, don't drive yourself to the hospital: Call an ambulance. You could lose consciousness and hurt yourself or others on the road, says Dr. Joel Beachey, a cardiologist at Mayo Clinic Health System in Eau Claire, Wisconsin. The same goes for having a loved one drive you -- if your symptoms worsen, they won't be able to help you while they're driving, and may be distracted.
Paramedics can provide the best and fastest care while you're on the way to the hospital, including giving you an assessment and providing some treatment, Beachey says.
If you're with someone who is having heart attack symptoms and becomes unconscious, you should first call 911 and then engage in CPR, Breathett says. (You can find free CPR training at your local American Heart Association branch and many other places.)
3. Take aspirin, if you have it
If you're having heart attack symptoms and have access to aspirin, take a full dose of 325 mg after calling the ambulance, Beachey says. (If you have baby aspirin, which comes in an 81 mg dose, take four of those.) He recommends chewing it instead of swallowing, so it gets into your system faster.
The reason? When you're having a heart attack, a plaque inside your arteries becomes unstable and ruptures, which forms a blood clot that can close off supply to that artery. Taking aspirin can help break down some of that blood clot.
4. Advocate for yourself
Though in an ideal world, health care providers would take all patient concerns seriously when it comes to heart attack symptoms, studies show women and people of color are less likely to receive adequate treatment for heart attacks and heart disease. For example, older Black women were 50% less likely to be treated when they arrived at a hospital with heart attack or coronary artery disease symptoms than white women, including after accounting for education, income, insurance status and other heart health complications like diabetes and high blood pressure, a 2019 study found.
"It's been very clear over most of our history in the US that women and people of color are not heard," Breathett says. "Their symptoms get dismissed, and they have worse outcomes. As a health care system, we have a lot more work to do to change that system so that each person can get equitable care irrespective of their demographic."
Until that time comes, patients need to be their own advocate and speak up for themselves, she adds. And if they aren't being heard, they have the right to seek care elsewhere.
One tip recommended by a resident on TikTok: If you feel a provider isn't taking your symptoms seriously, for heart health or otherwise, you can ask the provider, "What is your differential diagnosis?"
@dor_the_grayt POCs are more likely to be ignored. Ask questions, take notes, document the events. If you are alone, have a relative/friend on the phone. #patientadvocate#racisminmedicine#maternalmortality#bipoc#blackwomen#learnontiktok♬ original sound - Dorender Dankwa
A differential diagnosis is a term to describe what the different diseases are that could be contributing to your symptoms, basically asking the provider to explain why they've ruled out a heart attack and what else it could be. "That might help a person realize, oh, I haven't effectively tested to make sure this is not cardiac disease," Breathett says.
You can also bring a family member or friend to help ask questions on your behalf. Write down questions in advance if you can, so you can have them addressed during your short visit. And call back with any questions that weren't answered. If you're not satisfied or feel that you're not being heard, seek out another care team.
5. Work on prevention
You've heard it a million times, but that's because it's true: The best way to prevent a heart attack is maintaining a healthy diet, doing moderate exercise for 120 to 150 minutes per week, keeping your cholesterol and blood pressure under control and not smoking.
Heart attacks can happen to people of any age, race or gender. You should get regular physical exams with your primary care provider to assess your risk, and make lifestyle changes that can help with prevention. Some people might also benefit from taking a baby aspirin every day as a preventative measure, but you'll need to talk to your care provider about that.
Exercise is important even if you have a history of heart trouble, Beachey says.
Knowing what to do to prevent and respond to a heart attack is just one of the many important elements of your health you should know about. Read on to discover the best workouts to strengthen your heart, the difference between the types of cholesterol and how your diet affects your health. Plus, if you're looking for new ways to monitor your metrics, check out CNET's list of recommended fitness trackers and blood pressure monitors.
The information contained in this article is for educational and informational purposes only and is not intended as health or medical advice. Always consult a physician or other qualified health provider regarding any questions you may have about a medical condition or health objectives.