About 6,000 refugees live in the Jungle, a camp on the east side of Calais in northern France. It's their base for trying to smuggle themselves on a truck bound for the UK, where they often have family or friends. The UK also has a reputation for handling asylum claims faster than France.
Many Jungle refugees live in tents, but they can only keep the rain off for so long. Some refugees use plastic sheeting to keep their tents waterproof.
Workers carry new razor wire to be installed on security fences to keep refugees off the highway. Refugees want to jump onto trucks that will be transported from Calais through the Eurotunnel to the UK.
This satellite view shows the Jungle refugee camp on May 17, 2016. The grid of white structures in the center of the frame are a fenced, government-run site with metal shipping containers for housing. Surrounding it is a jumble of tents and plywood structures.
Until March, the Jungle spread south across the barren area on the bottom half of the photo, but the government swept the site clear to try to coax refugees into the metal containers. The English Channel is just out of the frame on the top edge of the photo.
Sudanese refugee Adam Sharawi, who spent nine months traveling by car, boat and train across Africa to France, walks back to the Jungle camp after another night failing to get onto a truck bound for the UK. He doesn't want his face photographed in case that might jeopardize his chances of getting asylum in the UK.
Madena Rashed, a 2-year-old girl from Mosul, Iraq, lives in a plywood home with her parents and older brother. The shed was built by Doctors Without Borders at a camp in Grande-Synthe near Dunkirk, France.
Nahro Rashed shows a photo of his two children, Muhammed and Madena Rashed, sleeping while homeless in Hungary after fleeing fundamentalist forces in Iraq. His wife, Gwan, holds Madena on her lap. Phones are useful for communicating, but they also record refugees' hardships.
Journalists near highways and trains in Calais get a frosty reception from police posted to keep refugees from climbing onto trucks bound for the UK. They scrutinized our ID and press credentials as two other vans drove up as backup.
Abdula Hamid, an Iraqi Kurd, stands next to his modest store in the Grande-Synthe refugee camp near Dunkirk in northern France. Cigarettes, repackaged into bundles of 10, cost 1.50 euros (about $1.68).
This refugee, who didn't want his face photographed, said he was injured trying to jump onto a moving truck. There is a basic medical clinic at the Jungle, and more serious cases can be transferred to a Calais hospital. Bicycles are useful to get around the city, but they're rare and invariably battered.
Grande-Synthe refugee homes are sandwiched between a highway and a railyard visible in the distance in this photo. It's also got fire hydrants, something missing from the Jungle camp near Calais 25 miles west.
Commerce survives in the Jungle, though it doesn't exactly thrive. Many refugees who can't afford to buy food rely on free meals from aid agencies, but several stores offer snacks and drinks. A bicycle repair shop stands near one of the Jungle's entrances.
Friends and customers can charge their phones at this store, one of the few with electrical power, thanks to a gas-powered generator. In front of the table are propane tanks used for a stove for cooking naan bread.
French authorities swept the southern half the Jungle clear in March in an effort to move refugees into government-supplied housing at the camp. Now only weeds and a water tap remain. About 2,500 refugees were displaced, but there was only room for 1,500 refugees, aid agency Medecins Sans Frontiers says.
Graffiti on one Jungle shack quotes the Emma Lazarus poem inscribed on the US Statue of Liberty: "Give me your tired, your poor / Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free / The wretched refuse of your teeming shore / Send these, the homeless, tempest-tost to me / I lift my lamp beside the golden door!"
The Jungle's government camp is safer than the chaotic jumble of tents, but refugees must scan their hands electronically for admittance. That's a problem: refugees work hard to avoid giving their fingerprints until they reach the country in which they hope to claim asylum.
The Dunkirk Children's Center, run by a non-profit group called Edulumino, offers a place for kids to learn and stay at the Grande-Synthe refugee camp in northern France. Director Rory Fox says about 100 kids attend the school, but turnover is high as families pay to be smuggled to the UK.