Astronomers have discovered an "Earth-like" planet orbiting Proxima Centauri, the nearest star to Earth besides our own sun. The planet, dubbed Proxima b, orbits nearly five times closer to the red dwarf than Mercury does to our sun. Because Proxima Centauri is much smaller and cooler than our sun, the rocky planet is still in the habitable zone where water and life could theoretically exist. Click through for more views and details on one of the most significant space discoveries since the first exoplanet around a sun-like star, 51 Pegasi b, was confirmed in 1995.
Caption byEric Mack / Photo by Ricardo Ramirez and James Jenkins (Department of Astronomy, Universidad de Chile)
The European Southern Observatory's 3.6-meter La Silla telescope can be seen in the top of this composite. It was one of the instruments used to confirm the presence of a habitable-zone planet around Proxima Centauri at the lower right -- shown next to an image of the double-star Alpha Centauri AB.
Caption byEric Mack / Photo by Y. Beletsky (LCO)/ESO/ESA/NASA/M
A shot of the European Southern Observatory's Very Large Telescope (VLT) during observations. The yellow line is a "laser guide star," part of an adaptive optics system that compensates for the blurring of Earth's atmosphere. The VLT was used for observations of Proxima Centauri over the years.
The HARPS spectrograph seen during laboratory tests. The ESO instrument was used to help confirm the existence of Proxima b. The vacuum tank is open so some of the high-precision components inside can be seen.
This chart shows the large southern constellation of Centaurus (The Centaur), providing a map for future generations to travel to the nearest exoplanet. Proxima Centauri is too faint to see in the night sky without using a small telescope.
Caption byEric Mack / Photo by ESO/IAU and Sky & Telescope