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Ten years ago, Congress passed the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA). In doing so, they put the age of inefficient incandescent lighting on notice. The law mandated strict new energy standards designed to kick-start a new era of greener, longer-lasting, more cost-efficient light bulbs -- and this meant kicking outdated, inefficient bulbs to the curb.

The rising standards have already long rendered 100W and 75W incandescents obsolete, and in 2014, their 60W and 40W cousins met the same fate. Congressional budget waffling briefly seemed to put the new standards on hold, but it was largely too late -- the industry had already moved on, and wasn't interested in reversing course.

Like it or not, the arrival of this new era means that replacing your lights will never be quite the same. With all of the new options out there (not to mention the disappearance of some important old ones), finding the perfect bulb can seem pretty daunting. New lights that promise to last 20 years and save you hundreds of dollars might sound good in theory, but how do you know which one is the right one for you? How do you know the bulb you're buying is going to be bright enough? And what if you're just not ready to say goodbye to your incandescents?

Well, fear not, because we've got you covered with a handy guide that's chock-full of all the information you'll need to make sure that your next light bulb is the right bulb.

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What kinds of bulbs are available?

We've all gotten to know incandescents quite well over the past 135 years or so, but times are changing. These days, you've got some new lighting categories to familiarize yourself with, and doing so is the first, most obvious step toward buying the right bulb.

Some LEDs stand out for their space-age looks. Tyler Lizenby/CNET

LEDs

Average cost: $3 to $20
Average wattage: 4W to 22W
Average life expectancy: 20,000 hours

Light-emitting diodes, or LEDs, are the new rock stars of the bulb world. When an LED is switched on, electrons and electron holes come together (and don't worry, I'm not completely sure I fully understand what a "hole" is in this context, either). At any rate, the result of this process is a release of energy in the form of photons, or light.

A typical LED uses a fraction of the wattage required to power a bright incandescent bulb, and this makes LEDs dramatically more cost-effective over the long run. For instance, a 10W LED that puts out 800 lumens of light (lumens are units of brightness for a light source -- more on that in just a bit) will add about $1.20 per year to your power bill if used for 3 hours a day at an average energy rate of 11 cents per kilowatt hour (kWh). Under those same parameters, a traditional 60W incandescent bulb that puts out the same amount of light will cost about $7.20 per year -- that's more than the cost of replacing it with a basic LED like the one described above. Multiply that by the total number of bulbs in your home, and you're looking at the potential for some pretty significant long-term savings.

LEDs are also rated to last for tens of thousands of hours, which can translate to decades of use. Compare that with the year or so you typically get out of an incandescent, and you can begin to see why so many people find these bulbs appealing. With some options now as cheap as $3 per bulb, that 10W LED would pay for itself in energy savings within a few months, then keep on saving you money for years if not decades to come.

This Insteon LED promises to last for a whopping 52,000 hours. Colin West McDonald/CNET

Decades? Really?

Yes, really -- at least, according to Energy Star and the Illuminating Engineering Society (IES), the independent organization that created the testing procedures manufacturers use to rate LED lights. Let's go ahead and dig a little deeper into those longevity claims.

First, it's important to understand that LED lights don't "burn out," the way that incandescents do. Instead, they undergo "lumen depreciation," which just means that they gradually grow dimmer and dimmer over time. The test that the IES uses to determine a bulb's longevity is known as the LM80, and it calculates how long it will take for an LED to fade enough for you to notice it.

In the LM80 test, engineers run the bulb for nine months straight in order to get an accurate read of the light's rate of decay. Using those figures, they can calculate the point at which the light will have faded to 70 percent of its original brightness -- the point where you'll start to notice that things aren't quite as bright as they used to be. This point, known as "L70," is the current standard in LED longevity. If an LED says it'll last 25,000 hours, it's really saying that it will take the bulb 25,000 hours to fade down to 70 percent brightness.

This isn't to say that LEDs don't fail. They definitely do. As with any device relying on tiny, delicate electrical components, things can go wrong. Fortunately, more and more LED bulbs come with multiyear warranties for cases of mechanical failure. Some manufacturers, like GE and Cree, offer affordable LED bulbs with 10-year warranties. Consumers with a healthy dose of skepticism regarding LED longevity claims should look for bulbs like these, made by manufacturers willing to put their money where their mouth is.

CFLs like this one are great energy-savers.

Ry Crist/CNET

CFLs

Average cost: $2 to $20
Average wattage: 9W to 52W
Average life expectancy: 10,000 hours

Before LEDs exploded into the lighting scene, compact fluorescent lights (CFLs to you and me) were seen by many as the heir apparent to incandescent lighting. Despite the fact that CFLs use between one-fifth and one-third the energy of incandescents, and typically save one to five times their purchase price over the course of their lifetime, many people weren't thrilled at the idea of switching over. Some find the whitish light output of CFL bulbs less aesthetically pleasing than the warm, yellow tone of most incandescents. Others are quick to point out that CFL bulbs that regularly get powered on and off for short periods of time tend to see a significant decrease in life expectancy. There's also the common complaint that most CFLs aren't dimmable, and that they often take a second or two after being switched on to fully light up.

The good news here is that CFL technology has improved a lot since EISA was signed into law 10 years ago. Today, you'll find a greater variety of color options, including bulbs rated at the low, yellow end of the Kelvin scale, and you'll have an easier time finding dimmable CFLs, too. There are even "instant-on" CFL bulbs designed to eliminate that annoying delay between flipping the switch and seeing the light.

The bad news is that in spite of these improvements, CFLs remain somewhat flawed. They're still prone to decreased life expectancy when you use them in short increments, so ideally you'll want to save them for lighting that you're going to keep on for longer periods of time. Additionally, most CFLs aren't intended for outdoor use, and some will fail to turn on in colder temperatures -- although if you shop around, you can find cold-cathode CFL bulbs rated for temperatures as low as -10 degrees Fahrenheit.

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Aren't CFL bulbs dangerous?

Like all fluorescents, CFLs contain trace amounts of mercury -- typically 3 to 5 milligrams (mg), although some contain less. This creates the potential for pollution when CFL bulbs are improperly disposed of, something that led to a unique environmental argument against the phasing out of incandescents (although, to be fair, this was before LEDs were seen as such a viable option).

The amount of mercury vapor in a standard CFL bulb is about one-hundredth of what you'd find in an old-fashioned thermometer. Even in such a small amount, mercury merits a degree of caution, as direct exposure can cause damage to the brain, lungs, and kidneys. That said, if a CFL shatters on your kitchen floor, you don't need to panic or evacuate your home. Just be sure to open a window and let the room air out for 10 minutes, then carefully transfer the glass and dust into a sealable container (and don't use a vacuum cleaner -- you don't want to kick those chemicals up into the air). If you can take the broken bulb to a recycling center for proper disposal, great. (For more info on CFLs and mercury, click here.)

Your days are numbered, pal (or are they?) Ry Crist/CNET

Incandescents

Average cost: $1 to $10
Average wattage: 40W to 150W
Average life expectancy: 1,000 hours

When I tell you to picture a light bulb, chances are good that you're envisioning an incandescent. This is the classic bulb of Thomas Edison: a tungsten filament trapped within a glass enclosure. Electricity heats the filament to a point where it glows, and voila, you have light.

Aren't incandescents banned?

As a matter of fact, they aren't. EISA doesn't actually ban anything, at least not directly. What EISA does do is raise efficiency standards -- specifically, the minimum acceptable ratio of lumens (light) per watt (electricity). Incandescents aren't banned; they simply have to become more efficient. Also, keep in mind that appliance lights, certain decorative bulbs, and other specialty classes of incandescents are exempt from the new standards, so they aren't going anywhere.

It's true that traditional incandescents unable to keep up with the times will be phased out. However, the door is still wide open for non-traditional incandescents to take their place, and we're already seeing some manufacturers rise to the challenge, with high-efficiency incandescent bulbs that manage to meet the new standards. Key among these high-efficiency bulbs is yet another lighting option you'll want to consider.

This halogen bulb glows with a warm, incandescent-like light.

Ry Crist/CNET

Halogens

Average cost: $2 to $15
Average wattage: 29W to 72W
Average life expectancy: 1,000 hours

Halogens are just incandescent bulbs with a bit of halogen gas trapped inside with the filament. This gas helps "recycle" the burned-up tungsten gas back onto the filament, making for a slightly more efficient light. Unlike the mercury in CFLs, this gas isn't anything that could be classified as hazardous waste.

Due to their relative similarity to classic incandescents -- both in light quality and in cost -- halogens can work as a good compromise bulb for consumers who need to replace their incandescents, but who also aren't ready to commit to CFLs or LEDs quite yet.

Ry Crist/CNET

What information should I be looking for?

You want to be sure that you'll enjoy living with whatever light bulb you purchase, especially if you're choosing a long-lasting bulb that you'll live with for years. Fortunately, the Federal Trade Commission now requires light bulb manufacturers to put a "Lighting Facts" label onto their products' packaging, similar to the "Nutrition Facts" label that you'll find on packaged food.

These Lighting Facts include everything from the estimated yearly cost of using the bulb to more obscure figures, like lumens and color temperature. If you want to shop smart, it will help to understand as much of that terminology as you can.

With well over 800 lumens, this 11W Philips LED bulb would make a good replacement for a 60W incandescent's brightness. Ry Crist/CNET

Lumens

If you're buying a bulb these days, you'll be left in the dark if you don't know what a lumen is. The actual definition gets a bit complicated, involving things like steradians and candela, but don't worry, because all that you really need to know is that lumens are units of brightness. The more lumens a bulb boasts, the brighter it will be. So, how does this information help you?

Let me give you an example. If you look at CFL or LED bulbs, you'll see that most all of them are marketed as "replacements" for incandescent bulbs of specific wattages. You'll probably see the word "equivalent" used, too, as in "60-watt equivalent." This can be frustratingly misleading, because watts measure energy usage, not brightness, and "equivalent" often means something closer to "equivalent... ish."

Relying on these wattage equivalencies can lead you to buy a bulb that ends up being far too dim or too bright for your needs, and this is where understanding lumens really comes in handy. With lumens listed on each and every bulb, you'll always have a concrete comparison of how bright any two bulbs actually are. The bigger the lumen count, the brighter the bulb -- easy enough, right?

How many lumens do I need?

Over the last century, we've been trained to think about light purely in terms of wattages, so it isn't surprising that most people really have no idea of how many lumens they actually need in a bulb. Until you form an idea of how bright is bright enough for your tastes, stick with these figures:

Replacing a 40W bulb: look for at least 450 lumens
Replacing a 60W bulb: look for at least 800 lumens
Replacing a 75W bulb: look for at least 1,100 lumens
Replacing a 100W bulb: look for at least 1,600 lumens

A yellow, low-color-temperature bulb compared with one with a bluish, high color temperature.

Ry Crist/CNET

Color temperature

After lumens, the next concept you'll want to understand is color temperature. Measured on the Kelvin scale, color temperature isn't really a measure of heat. Instead, it's a measure of the color that a light source produces, ranging from yellow on the low end of the scale to bluish on the high end, with whitish light in the middle.

An easy way to keep track of color temperature is to think of a flame: it starts out yellow and orange, but when it gets really hot, it turns blue. You could also think of color temperature in terms of the sun -- low, yellowy color temperatures mimic the tone of light at sunrise or sunset, while hotter, more bluish-white color temperatures are more akin to daylight (sure enough, bulbs with color temperatures like these are commonly called "daylight" bulbs). This is also why a lot of people prefer high color temperatures during the day and lower color temperatures in the morning and evening.

Generally speaking, incandescents sit at the bottom of the scale with their yellow light, while CFLs and LEDs have long been thought to tend toward the high, bluish end of the spectrum. This has been a steady complaint about new lighting alternatives, as many people prefer the warm, familiar, low color temperature of incandescents. Manufacturers are listening, though, and in this case they heard consumers loud and clear, with more and more low-color-temperature CFL and LED options hitting the shelves. Don't believe me? Take another look at those two paper lamps in the picture above, because they're both CFL bulbs -- from the same manufacturer, no less.

Sylvania often color codes its packaging. Blue indicates a hot, bluish color temperature, while the lighter shade indicates a white, more neutral light.

Ry Crist/CNET

These days, bulb shoppers will find so many color temperature options that some lighting companies have cleverly begun color-coding their packaging: blue for high-color-temperature bulbs, yellow for low-color-temperature ones, and white for bulbs that fall in between. With so many choices available, the notion that the phase-out of incandescents is taking warm, cozy lighting with it is a complete myth at this point.

Color rendering index

Unless you live in a disco, you probably want the colors in your home to look somewhat traditional. This is where the color rendering index, or CRI, comes in. The CRI is a score from 1 to 100 that rates a bulb's ability to accurately illuminate colors. You can think of the CRI as a light bulb's GPA for colors, as it actually averages multiple scores for multiple shades. Manufacturers aren't required to list the bulb's CRI number on the packaging, but many of them choose to do so anyway, so you'll want to know what it means.

To understand CRI a little better, let's imagine a basketball game played outdoors on a sunny day between a team in red jerseys and a team in green jerseys. Daylight is the ideal for making colors look the way they should, so it gets a CRI score of 100. Most people watching this game would have no problem telling the teams apart, because red would appear clearly red, and green would look green.

Now let's imagine that same basketball game -- except now it's being played inside that disco I mentioned earlier. We're indoors, it's a little dim, and we're stuck with multicolored spotlights as the only light source. A purple one shines down on a very confused point guard as he takes a shot. Can you tell if he's on the green team or the red one? I wouldn't be surprised if you couldn't, because the CRI score of lights like those is abysmal.

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Now here's the rub: the CRI is highly imperfect and not always useful (the reasons why are mind-numbing, but you can read more here if you're curious/masochistic). The important takeaway is that CRI scores are really only helpful if you're talking about bulbs that sit in the middle of the color temperature spectrum. You'll probably see references to "white" or "natural" light on bulbs like these. In these cases, the CRI score can be a great way to tell a good bulb from a great bulb.

In general, anything over 80 is probably decent enough for your home, but we're starting to see CRI scores creeping up into the nineties on some very affordable bulbs. The GE Reveal BR30 floodlight LED won our Editors' Choice distinction for its emphasis on color rendering. There's even a $5 LED from Ikea that scores in the upper 80s. If accurate color rendering is important to you, look for lights like these. And if you're buying bulbs on the high (blue) or low (yellow) end of the spectrum, take any and all CRI claims with a grain of salt.

At about 13 lumens per watt, you could definitely do a lot better than this halogen. Ry Crist/CNET

How do I tell if a light bulb is efficient?

In simple terms, a light bulb is just a device that converts electricity into light. The more lumens of light you get per watt of electricity, the more efficient the bulb is. With incandescent bulbs, efficiency is easy to understand because a specific wattage of electricity will always heat a tungsten filament to a specific temperature, which in turn will yield a specific level of light. This means that, generally speaking, one incandescent will be more or less as efficient (or by today's standards, inefficient) as another.

With LEDs and CFLs, the bulbs still convert electricity into light, but the methodology is totally different. Light output isn't fixed to the temperature of a filament, which means there's more wiggle room for differences in efficiency. Simply put, unlike incandescents, LED and CFL bulbs are decidedly not created equal.

This is another place where it's essential to understand lumens. A 10W LED can easily outshine a 12W competitor if it converts watts into lumens more efficiently. All the wattage tells you is how much power the bulb uses. The lumens tell you how much light the bulb puts out. The ratio between the two tells you how efficient the bulb is. The more lumens you're getting per watt, the better the bulb is at converting electricity into light.

Tyler Lizenby/CNET

What other factors will I want to consider?

So far, we've covered the light bulb basics (and then some), but if you really want to get picky about your home lighting, or if you just want to delve a little deeper into the subject, there's a lot more to take into consideration.

Bulb shape

As you're probably aware, light bulbs come in a fairly wide variety of shapes. Sure, it's easy enough to tell a hardware store clerk that you want "one of those flamey-looking lights," or "just a normal ol' bulby light bulb," but knowing the actual nomenclature might save you some time.

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Let's start with the base of the bulb, the part that screws in. In the US, the most common shape by far is E26, with the "E" standing for Edison and the "26" referring to the diameter of the base in millimeters. You might also see E27 bulbs from time to time, which is the European standard. Those should still fit into common American fixtures, but keep in mind that voltage ratings are different in the two regions, with American bulbs rated for 120 volts compared to 220-240 volts in Europe. For smaller sockets, like you might find with a candelabra, you'll want to look for an E12 base.

As for the bulb itself, the typical shape that you're probably used to is an A19 bulb. Increase that number to A21 or A23, and you've got the same shape, but bigger. Bulbs made to resemble flames are F-shaped, which is easy enough to remember, as are globes, which go by the letter G. If it's a floodlight you want, you'll want to look for "BR" (bulging reflector) or "PAR" (parabolic aluminized reflector). Those bulbs are designed to throw all their light in one direction only, which makes them useful for spot lighting, overhead lighting and the headlights in your car.

What about those weird-looking LEDs?

While most LEDs go out of their way to mimic the familiar look of incandescent lighting, others take a different approach. After all, those classic bulb shapes were designed to optimize incandescent light output, just like the twisty shape of CFL light bulbs is designed to optimize fluorescent light output. Why shouldn't we do the same for LEDs?

Well, some manufacturers are doing exactly that. The most notable example is probably Philips, which introduced a flattened down, ping-pong-paddle-esque light called the Philips SlimStyle back in 2013. The flat design distributes the diodes along the horseshoe shaped perimeter, which helps the bulb manage heat better and actually eliminates the need for bulky, fin-like heat sinks altogether. In 2014, Philips extended the SlimStyle line to include a flattened BR30 floodlight LED, too.

The Green Creative BR30 Cloud LED has an eyebrow-raising, hollowed-out design. Tyler Lizenby/CNET

There's even more experimentation with design coming from smaller names looking for a way to stand out from the crowd. Green Creative recently introduced its own take on the flattened-down BR30 floodlight. Called the Cloud LED, this light suspends a flat disk of diodes up above the base of the bulb, with a big, hollow area in the middle. Like the SlimStyle BR30, this design helps it manage heat a whole lot better (and looks pretty darned cool, too.)

Some LEDs focus almost exclusively on that cool factor, aiming to provide light sources that double as conversation starters. Take the Nanoleaf Bloom, for instance, which features a 3D-printed jigsaw assembly with the diodes dotted all over the outside of the bulb. You'll find a lot of these design-centric light bulbs on crowdfunding sites like Kickstarter and Indiegogo.

Can you tell which of these bulbs is an incandescent and which one is the Saffron LED? Tyler Lizenby/CNET

If that kind of ostentatious approach to design puts you off, don't worry. Plenty of LEDs tack in the exact opposite direction, and feature builds designed not to stand out, but to blend in. Saffron's 40W replacement LED is a good example -- the design crams LED tech into a classic glass bulb, making it more or less indistinguishable from an incandescent. Or course, with the heat sinks left out out of the design, performance suffers a bit, but if you appreciate simple aesthetics, perhaps you can live with that.

Cree's 4Flow LED is another incandescent imitator that strikes more of a middle ground between performance and design. Its plastic-bodied build has the same silhouette as a traditional A19-shaped incandescent, thanks to cleverly designed convection vents that eliminate the need for bulky heat sinks.

This UtiliTech Pro LED bulb is just 30 degrees shy of omnidirectional.

Ry Crist/CNET

Directionality

Some lights have hardware built into the bulb itself that can block the downward projection of light (BR and PAR bulbs do it intentionally, reflecting that light back upward). These bulbs are fine for something like a recessed light fixture, where they hang upside down and shine straight out, but if you're buying one for a bedside reading lamp, where downward light is key, it might be disappointingly dim. If you aren't sure exactly what you'll need from your bulb in terms of light direction, the safe bet might be to go with a bulb that shines in all directions. The term that you'll want to look for is "omnidirectional."

In addition, some non-omnidirectional lights will offer you an idea of just how close to omnidirectional they actually are. 360 degrees of light output is the obvious ideal, but a bulb that offered 330 degrees would probably be close enough.

You'll find plenty of dimmable LEDs these days, but some will dim better than others. Tyler Lizenby/CNET

Dimmability

A majority of modern lighting options now include compatibility with in-wall dimmer switches, and that's a good thing for anyone who likes the light down low. If this sounds like you, then you'll want to double check that your bulb's packaging says the word "dimmable" before you make a purchase.

That said, some bulbs will dim down better than others -- and your mileage may vary depending on what switch you're using, too. Most basic switches dim the light by flashing the power on and off faster than the eye can detect. In many cases, this can cause electromagnetic interference in the bulbs, which can lead to flickering light or a faint buzz from within the bulb.

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The dimmable ranges of these four LED floodlights varied -- the GE Reveal was able to hit 100% at maximum and a satisfying 5 percent at minimum. Colin West McDonald/CNET

Testing for these kinds of dimmability concerns is tricky business due to the many variables involved, but we do our best to determine which bulbs are most susceptible. This standard 60W equivalent LED from Philips, for instance, did extremely well on all of the switches we tested it out on, while the Philips SlimStyle LED was noticeably worse.

We also test out the dimmable range of each bulb we review -- some can dim down lower than others before cutting out to black, and some won't quite shine at full brightness with the switch dialed all the way back up. You're probably nitpicking at that point, but hey, sometimes mood lighting matters.

If you're truly focused on lights that dim well, then you may want to consider a smart LED kit. With an LED-specific dimming mechanism built right into each bulb, there's no need for a dimmer switch. Instead, you'll dim the bulb using a smartphone app, a physical remote accessory, or even a voice command if it works with Siri, Alexa, or the Google Assistant. Best of all, you shouldn't encounter any buzzing or flickering. And hey, while we're on the subject...

You can set this Insteon LED Bulb to turn on and off automatically, or control it remotely, from your smartphone.

Colin West McDonald/CNET

What about smart lighting?

It's out there, it's more affordable than you might think, and your options are growing quickly. Whether you want an elaborate network of fully automated lights, smart color control, or just a simple bulb that you can program over your phone via Bluetooth, you'll find a growing number of options available from a variety of different sources.

Your automated-lighting options

It used to be that if you wanted your lights to turn on and off automatically, then you had to rely on a cheap wall socket timer, the kind you might use to control a Christmas tree. These days, with a modest boom in smart lighting currently under way, it's easier than ever to dive into the sort of advanced automation controls that can make any home feel modern and futuristic. Use the right devices, and you'll be able to control your lights in all sorts of creative ways, and make your life a little bit easier in the process.

The most obvious way to get started with smart lighting is with the bulbs themselves. You've got plenty of intelligent options from brands both big and small, and to find the one that's best for you, you're going to need to understand what sets them apart.

The first thing to look at is how the bulbs communicate with you. Some offer direct connections with your smart phone via Bluetooth or Wi-Fi, which makes setup as simple as screwing the thing in and following in-app pairing instructions.

Others transmit using a distinct frequency like ZigBee or Z-Wave. Bulbs like those might be a better fit for bigger smart home setups, as it's typically a little easier to sync them up with things like motion detectors and smart locks. Setup can be slightly more advanced, as you'll need a separate hub or gateway device capable of translating that distinct frequency into a Wi-Fi signal your router can comprehend.

Some smart bulbs come with their own gateway. Others, like the Cree Connected LED, require a third-party control device, like the Wink Hub. Screenshots by Ry Crist/CNET

Some of these kinds of bulbs, including Philips Hue White LEDs, Stack LEDs, and Osram Lightify LEDs, have their own gateway devices, but their starter kits can get expensive. Other smart bulbs, like the Cree Connected LED and the GE Link LED, cost a lot less up front, but don't come with their own gateways -- that means you'll need a compatible third-party hub in order to control them.

Hubs like those are your best bet at building your own, elaborate smart home setup with different kinds of products from different brands all working together. However, if that sounds like too much of a headache, or if all you want are lights that come on automatically at sunset, then one of those starter kits that comes with its own gateway is probably worth the cash.

One last note: don't forget to consider smartening things up at the switch, instead. It's an especially smart solution if you have several bulbs wired to one switch, and the bonus upside is that, unlike with smart bulbs, your automations will work even when the switch is turned off. And if you need help figuring out which switch to go with, well, wouldn't you know it, we've got a buying guide for that, too.

What other smart features should I look for?

There are a few basic features that you'll definitely want to keep an eye out for as you're shopping around. The first is smart scheduling, which lets you use an app to set your lights to turn on or off at specific times. With smart scheduling, you can program your lights to wake you up in the morning, or maybe to simulate occupancy while you're away on vacation. It's really a core part of connected lighting's appeal.

You'll want to look for a system that gives you as much scheduling control as possible. Setting a light bulb to turn on automatically in the evening is good -- setting it to turn on automatically when the sun sets is even better. Some systems will even let you tell the lights to slowly fade on or off over a specified period of time, which can make for a cozy way to fall asleep at night (or a nice alternative to that blaring alarm clock in the morning).

Of course, if you're considering a bulb that doesn't come with its own gateway, then you'll need to look at your various hub options to see what scheduling features their apps offer.

The Philips Hue Tap is a nifty physical controller for Hue LEDs. Colin West McDonald/CNET

Something else to consider is whether or not the system you're interested in offers some kind of physical remote -- a handy way to help you keep your phone in your pocket. The Philips Hue Tap is a cool, kinetic-powered switch that needs no batteries, and the Connected by TCP kit offers a simpler, more affordable remote.

Other features are going to be more product specific. For instance, Osram's smart LED kit features bulbs that are "color tunable," which means you can dial the color temperature up and down between warm, yellowy tones and hotter, more bluish-white shades, or set it to change as the day progresses. A startup called Sengled has a variety of innovative smart bulb designs, including ones with cameras, speakers, and Wi-Fi extenders built right in.

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The Lifx Plus LED puts out invisible infrared light at night, when things get dark. You can't see it, but that light helps night vision cameras see further.

Screenshots by Ry Crist/CNET

Shop around, and you'll also find a growing number of third-party integrations that open the door for intriguing new smart bulb functionality. LEDs like Lifx and the Stack LED offer direct integrations with the Nest Learning Thermostat capable of tying your smart lighting in with smart climate control. Insteon's LEDs are fully supported by Microsoft, which means you can control them using Windows Live Tiles, or simply by talking to Cortana.

Keep an eye out for smart lights that tie into home security, too, because you've got a growing number of rather unique options to consider. BeOn's Bluetooth smart bulbs have built in microphones, and can turn on automatically if they hear your doorbell or your burglar alarm. They also feature built-in batteries to keep them working even when the lamp is switched off -- or if the power goes out. If you use night vision cameras in your home, the Lifx Plus LED will put out invisible infrared light during the night to help them see further.

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Many smart bulbs, like this Stack LED, can be controlled using voice commands with Siri, Alexa, or the Google Assistant.

Tyler Lizenby/CNET

What about voice control?

Virtual voice assistants are a growing fixture in our lives, and in our homes now, too, thanks to products like the Amazon Echo smart speaker. More and more, people are looking for new ways to put these voice-activated helpers to use -- and smart lighting is a pretty perfect fit.

You've already got a lot of options here, especially with Amazon's Alexa, whose catalog of smart home skills seems to be growing the fastest. Smart lighting names like Lutron, Lifx, Philips Hue, TP-Link, Haiku and more already boast Alexa compatibility, along with lighting-friendly smart home platforms like Wink, SmartThings, and Insteon. No matter what kind of bulb you're looking for, the odds are very good that you'll be able to find at least one that works with Alexa.

The appeal of voice-activated smart lighting is pretty obvious. Remote control of your home's lights by way of a smartphone app or a physical remote is one thing, but being able to dim the lights up and down with a simple voice command takes the convenience factor to a whole new level -- and it's particularly helpful for people with physical disabilities or other mobility issues.

Beyond Alexa, you could also look for Apple HomeKit-compatible smart lights that work with Siri, or lights that work with the Google Home smart speaker's Google Assistant. Many smart lighting options work with a variety of platforms, which gives you a lot of flexibility over how to build out your voice-activated smart lighting setup.

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Color control

If you're looking for a little more color in your life, then be sure and take a look at a product like the Philips Hue Starter Kit. Aside from being fully automatable via a mobile app and control hub, the Hue LED bulbs are capable of on-demand color changes. Just pull out your phone, select one of millions of possible shades, and the light will match it. And if you're into voice control, Hue bulbs hit the compatibility trifecta -- they'll work with Siri, Alexa, and the Google Assistant.

Because Philips opened its lighting controls to third-party developers, you'll also find lots of fun novelty uses for Hue bulbs, like changing the color of your lights in rhythm with whatever music you're playing. There's even an app that'll sync your Hue lights up with certain TV programming.

Hue lights are also directly compatible with the popular web service IFTTT, with recipes already available that will change the color of your lights to match the weather, or to signal a touchdown from your favorite football team, or even to indicate when your stocks are doing well.

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Of course, Philips isn't your only option. We've seen new, color-changing competitors emerge over the last few years -- most notably, the Lifx LED. Lifx has a much brighter light output than Philips Hue, and since each bulb uses a built-in Wi-Fi radio, you won't need a hub in order to use them. And while it's hard to overstate the appeal of Philips' broad, well-developed platform and third-party integrations, Lifx has made impressive work of closing the gap.

If color-coordinated smart functionality makes your eyes roll, it still illuminates one last important thing about buying lights: you should look for the lighting setup that you'll enjoy the most, because you'll be using it more often than any other appliance in your home. Even if smart lights aren't for you, there's no reason not to be smart about your lighting choices. Know your options, shop intelligently, and you'll love your lights for years to come.

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