Tesla crash with no one driving leaves 2 dead NASA's Mars helicopter Peloton Tread Plus warning Marvel's Shang-Chi trailer Apple's April 20 event Child tax credit's monthly check

Tax return deadline 2021: How to estimate refund, claim stimulus money and more

Your 2020 income taxes are due on May 17. Here's everything you need to know.

Listen
- 12:45
tax-day-4005
Sarah Tew/CNET

Let's start with the good news: You still have a month to get your taxes done. In 2021, the IRS has once again postponed the income tax due date. Last year, the deadline was extended to July 15 due to the pandemic; this year, you'll have until midnight on May 17 to get your paperwork filed. The bad news: You may need that extra time more than ever, given that your taxes may be more complicated than usual, wrapped up in new and potentially thorny issues including unemployment insurance claimsstimulus check income and pandemic-driven changes in residence

When is my 2020 tax return due in 2021? 

Though last year the IRS extended the deadline from April 15 to July 15, this year the agency has granted us only one extra month: Your 2020 tax return is due on May 17, 2021. If you request an extension (and are approved), your last day to file will be Oct. 15, 2021. 

There's one considerable caveat, however: The IRS has said the May 17 deadline does not apply to those who make estimated payments, which are still due on April 15 -- which is coming up this Thursday. Though legislators introduced a new bill that would delay the Q1 estimated tax due date until May 17, it's not clear whether there's enough time or political will to get it passed.  

What happens if I miss the tax deadline?

If you fail to file your income taxes by midnight on May 17, what happens next depends on your situation. If you are owed a refund, there is no penalty for filing late, though this may be different for your state taxes. But if you owe the IRS, penalties and interest will start to accrue on any remaining unpaid tax due in May. There's also a $330 failure-to-file penalty under the Taxpayer First Act of 2019

It's best to file on time, even if you owe money that you can't pay right now -- in most cases, late filing penalties are higher than late tax payment penalties. If you can't file on time, you can file for an extension, which automatically pushes back the tax filing deadline to Oct. 15 and protects you from penalties. In most states, taxpayers who are granted a federal extension to file automatically receive an equivalent extension to file their state income tax return. 

An important note: If you are owed a refund or if you file for an extension through Oct. 15, you still have to pay your taxes by May 17. If you owe money, you're required to estimate the amount due and pay it with your Form 4868. If you do that, you'll automatically be granted an extension. 

Another caveat: If you're serving in the military -- in a combat zone or a contingency operation in support of the armed forces -- you may be granted additional time to file, according to the IRS. 

Bottom line? It's best to e-file or postmark your individual tax return as early as possible. CNET's roundup of the best tax software for 2021 features an array of packages that can help you take care of business quickly and affordably.

What changes for 2020 taxes do I need to know about?

For tax year 2020, the IRS has changed individual income tax brackets, adjusting them for inflation. There are also new temporary regulations created by last year's CARES Act around charitable deductions, IRA and 401(k) plans and student loans that may affect how you prepare your taxes. The major changes include: 

  • The standard deduction is now $12,400 for single filers and $24,800 for married couples filing jointly. (Learn more.) 
  • You can deduct up to $300 in donations to qualifying charities this year -- even if you don't itemize your deduction. (Learn more.) 
  • Employer contributions toward an employee's student loan of up to $5,250 per year are tax-free for both the employer and the employee, so long as they were made March 27, 2002 through Dec. 31, 2020. (Learn more.)
  • Required minimum distributions for IRAs and retirement plans were waived for 2020. Since those RMDs count as taxable income, if you didn't take the distribution, it's like getting a tax break. (Learn more.)
  • Changes to the earned income tax credit and the child tax credit: Normally, these tax credit amounts are based on earned income, granting more money to lower-income people. But the December coronavirus relief package allows filers to use their 2019 earnings instead of 2020 to determine their eligibility, raising the total amount of refundable credits provided to lower-income earners. You can compare your income from both tax years to determine which is best for you, according to the Tax Foundation.
  • For those with health flexible spending arrangements, the dollar limitation for employee salary reductions for contributions to those health plans is $2,750, an increase of $50 from last year. (Learn more.)
  • For medical expenses, the December stimulus bill enacted a permanent maximum amount of 7.5% of adjusted gross income for deducting medical expenses. Without the change, it would have risen to 10%. (Learn more.)
  • If you received a stimulus check under either the March CARES Act or the December stimulus bill, that does not count as taxable income, and will not impact your return. (Learn more.)

CNET has rounded up all of the changes to the tax rules this year, and there are even more details on the IRS website. And there are plenty of companies that would love to help you prepare your taxes -- for a fee, of course. (Depending on your annual income, you may be eligible for free preparation support resources, though they're sometimes harder to find than they should be.) CNET's Personal Finance crew has prepared a wealth of tax resources to help you, including a series of articles covering the 2020 tax season from every angle.

stimulus-mailboxes-coronaviris-2581

Tax filings needed to be postmarked by May 17.

Angela Lang/CNET

How do I file my taxes online?

CNET has rounded up the best tax software, featuring vendors such as TurboTax, H&R Block and TaxSlayer. These companies can make the tax filing process much easier, from reporting your taxable or self-employed income to setting up direct deposit to going through your itemized deductions.

That noted, the IRS provides a list of free online tax prep software offered by many of those same providers. You can use this service if you meet certain criteria and have a relatively simple tax situation. Requirements include: You make less than $72,000 annually, you don't itemize deductions and you don't own a business. This will likely be helpful for people who do not typically have to file taxes (such as those on SSI or SSDI, or those who are retired) but need to do so this year to claim missing stimulus money. (We've got instructions on how nonfilers can get started filing taxes this year here.)

If you want to itemize deductions or have a more complex financial situation -- you run a business, have investments or generate rental income -- you'll have to pay for a higher tier of service, which can run a couple hundred dollars. Still, for most people, even the most deluxe online package is far less expensive than hiring an authorized tax pro. And if you prefer to keep it old-school, the IRS' online tax forms handle some but not all of the calculations for you and still allow you to e-file or print and mail.

screen-shot-2018-03-05-at-10-04-45-am

A number of online tax software providers will help you file for free.

TurboTax

When do I need to file my state taxes?

Your state tax return deadline is likely the same as the federal return deadline: May 17. (Last year, most states extended their deadlines to July 15 to match the federal government's delayed deadline.) In most states, taxpayers who are granted a federal extension to file automatically receive an equivalent extension to file their state income tax return. 

Can I file my state taxes online?

Many states have their own online tax platforms, which are usually free to use. TurboTax, H&R Block and other online tax tools can also help you file your state return and can import most of the information from a federal return they've already prepared, though they usually charge a fee. Check out CNET's comparison of tax software and services to see which is best for you.

How do I claim missing stimulus money on my taxes?

If you were eligible for all or some of the first stimulus check of up to $1,200 per person or the second stimulus check of up to $600 per person, but that money never arrived (or you were missing a payment for your child dependents), you can claim your missing money on your 2020 tax return as a Recovery Rebate Credit. This credit would either increase the size of your total tax refund or lower the amount of taxes you owe. 

You'll file for the Recovery Rebate Credit on the 2020 Form 1040 or Form 1040-SR to claim a catch-up stimulus payment. The IRS will provide a Recovery Rebate Credit Worksheet to help you work out if you're missing a payment and for how much. We've got full instructions on how to file for a Recovery Rebate Credit on your taxes here.

tax-day-3999
Angela Lang/CNET

What if I don't normally have to file taxes, but want to claim a missing stimulus check? 

If you typically aren't required to file taxes because you're on SSI or SSDI, you're retired, or you don't meet the IRS' income threshold, but you need to claim missing stimulus money, you will have to file a 2020 tax return. The good news is, you'll likely be eligible to use the IRS' Free File program to do so. We've got a guide for how nonfilers can get started filing their 2020 tax return to claim stimulus money here.

When will I get my tax refund?

How quickly you can expect to see your refund depends on how you file, when you file and which payment method you choose. Filing online and filing earlier usually results in faster processing. In a normal year, the typical turnaround ranges from one to three weeks, but given the extreme abnormality of the past year, all bets are off. 

To speed up refunds during the pandemic, the IRS is asking taxpayers to file electronically with direct deposit as soon as possible, so the IRS can deposit your refund right into your bank account. Tax software companies, including IRS Free File partners, are accepting tax returns now, and began transmitting those returns to the IRS on Feb. 12. 

If you choose an e-Collect direct deposit, where your tax preparer's fee is deducted from your refund, it may add a few more days to your wait. A paper check may take several weeks to arrive. 

Here's how to estimate your tax refund

Now playing: Watch this: Your tax questions answered in 3 minutes
3:26

Where do I send my taxes?

If you file online, there's nothing to print out or mail, but we recommend you save an electronic copy for your records regardless. This could be especially useful if a third stimulus check is approved, since for the first two rounds of checks, your eligibility was based on your tax returns.

Otherwise, you'll need to mail your return to the IRS. The specific mailing address depends on which tax form you use and which state you live in. The IRS has published a list of where to file paper tax returns this year here. Be warned, however: The IRS says that due to staffing issues, processing paper returns could take several weeks longer this year. 

How do I send the IRS my tax payment?

If you're mailing your tax payment, you can elect to have the funds withdrawn directly from your bank account or include a personal check or money order. If you choose the latter, make it payable to "US Treasury" and include your name, address, phone number, Social Security number or Individual Tax ID Number. Under no circumstances should you ever mail cash to the IRS.

Read moreHow to handle cryptocurrency on your taxes

How do I check the status of my refund?

The IRS website features a handy web-based tool that lets you check the status of your refund, and there's also a mobile app, IRS2Go. You can usually access your refund status about 24 hours after e-filing or four weeks after mailing in a return. To check your status, you'll need to provide your Social Security number or ITIN, filing status and the exact amount of your refund. If your status is "received," the IRS has your return and is processing it. "Approved" means your refund is on its way.

Read more: What's your 2020 tax return status? How to track it and your refund money with the IRS

I have questions about my taxes. Can I call the IRS?

There are numerous ways to contact the IRS. The agency no longer offers live online chatting, but you can still submit questions through its online form. If you prefer to talk to a person, the IRS maintains a number of dedicated phone lines that are open Monday through Friday, from 7 a.m. to 7 p.m. (local time). Individuals can call 800-829-1040 and businesses can call 800-829-4933. Note, however, that the IRS says "live phone assistance is extremely limited at this time."

And there's always the Interactive Tax Assistant, an automated online tool that provides answers to a number of tax law questions. It can determine if a type of income is taxable, if you're eligible to claim certain credits and whether you can deduct expenses on your tax return. It also provides answers for general questions, such as determining your filing status, whether you can claim dependents or if you even have to file a tax return.

If you have a question for the IRS specifically related to stimulus checks and your taxes, the IRS recommends that you check IRS.gov and the Get My Payment application. (We have more information on how to contact the IRS for missing stimulus check-related questions here.)

Where can I find help with my taxes?

You can find helpful and affordable assistance by choosing a provider from CNET's roundup of the best tax software for 2021. But the IRS does offer some free tax help, too. The Volunteer Income Tax Assistance program is designed to offer guidance to people who make less than $54,000 per year, have disabilities or have limited facility with English. And the Tax Counseling for the Elderly program specializes in tax issues that affect people who are 60 or older. Due to COVID-19, however, many VITA sites, and all TCE sites, have been closed. For now the IRS' International Taxpayer Service Call Center remains available at 267-941-1000, Monday through Friday, 6 a.m. to 11 p.m. ET.

Read moreHow to deduct your home office without an audit