Porsche has been hit with a 535 million-euro (about $598 million) fine in Germany for "lapses in supervisory duties" that allowed Dieselgate to occur, Reuters reports. Of the three VW Group units hit with a fine for similar reasons, Porsche's is the smallest -- Audi paid 800 million euros (about $894 million), while Volkswagen had to eat a 1 billion euro (about $1.2 billion) fine.
All three automakers produced vehicles that did not adhere to legal limits regarding diesel tailpipe emissions. Some vehicles were gamed to pass regulatory tests, only to emit in excess of the legal limit once on the road. The issue was first uncovered in 2015, and since then, Volkswagen Group has found itself in and out of courthouses on both sides of the Atlantic.
According to Reuters, VW Group has spent some 30 billion euros (about $33.5 billion) in penalties and fines as a result of its misdeeds, which it fully acknowledges. It's unclear if that total also includes money paid toward buyback schemes and other programs instituted to help remove or remedy these dirty diesels. Previous reports had pegged VW's financial responsibility in the US alone to exceed $25 billion, but that includes the buyback programs and one-time payments to affected owners.
In addition to the companies being punished, prosecutors in the US and abroad have pursued individuals for their roles in the scandal. In mid-2018, then-Audi CEO Rupert Stadlerover concerns that he might obstruct the Dieselgate investigation. Former VW CEO Martin Winterkorn for his role in the scandal, but Germany won't extradite him. In 2017, former VW engineer James Liang in a US federal prison.