The deeper we look into space, the more places we come across that maybe, just maybe, could host life. From our neighboring planets to distant galaxies sending out weird signals, the list of spots in space worth checking out just continues to grow.
The closest worlds we should check for signs of life are those next door that we've already been to, or at least our robots have.
Originally published April 19, 2017. Update, Sept. 16, 2020: Adds new slides.
There's increasing evidence that Mars was once a lot more like Earth, with oceans on its surface. Today it's more harsh, but it's not out of the question that we could find some sort of microbes in Martian soil.
In 2019, a noted engineer suggested a "recently discovered group of nearby co-orbital objects is an attractive location for extraterrestrial intelligence (ETI) to locate a probe to observe Earth while not being easily seen." That's right. Some of those space rocks may actually be ancient spies keeping an eye on us for centuries, or longer.
We don't think of the largest gas giant planet around as a place to look for life, but science fiction author Ben Bova has other ideas.
"It's got all the ingredients, enough room and lots of energy," he said in 2016.
Bova briefly explained his notion of life-forms that might be able to live in the air or in water underneath Jupiter's dense deck of clouds. He referred me to a few of the novels from his "Grand Tour" series, including "Jupiter" and "Leviathans of Jupiter."
The storyline of the novels revolves around the existence of massive, city-size life-forms called Leviathans living in gigantic oceans that have condensed beneath the clouds of Jupiter.
Saturn's satellite Titan is the rare moon in our solar system with an atmosphere, weather, seas and rivers. It sure looks like home, except it's freezing and the lakes are flammable. Whatever life could survive there would be awfully weird, but scientists would still love to send a submarine to see for themselves.
Like Europa, Saturnian moon Enceladus has an icy shell with plumes shooting into space. In 2015, the Cassini spacecraft actually flew through one of the plumes and found large amounts of hydrogen present in its hidden ocean. This suggests the watery world has just about all the ingredients required to support life.
Jupiter moon Europa not only hides a subsurface ocean beneath its icy shell, but geysers have also been spotted there, hinting that some sort of hydrothermal activity might be able to support marine life.
Jupiter's moon Callisto is another world that harbors an unseen ocean. Checking it for microbes or any other exotic life forms might be tough, though, because it would require drilling through its huge, rocky exterior.
Ganymede, Jupiter's largest moon, has long been suspected of harboring a subsurface ocean. In 2015, scientists said they could confirm a salty ocean beneath its frozen crust. It also has a thin oxygen atmosphere, adding to its intrigue.
This former planet is very cold, but it's also more interesting than we used to think, with hints of active geology, lots of ice and perhaps some hidden oceans of its own. Definitely worth adding to the life-prospecting itinerary.
A potentially habitable planet around the nearest star to the sun, Proxima b is a no-brainer for closer examination. In fact, some told stories about alien civilizations there before the planet was even discovered. Plans are already underway to send tiny craft there to see if anyone is about.
Something weird is going on around the distant star KIC 8462852, also known as Boyajian's Star. After a few years of research, no one knows for sure what's happening, but one explanation that's yet to be completely ruled out is the far-out notion that a highly advanced society is building insanely huge megastructures in space that obstruct the star. Gulp.
Kepler-283c was discovered as part of a huge data dump from Kepler that included over 700 newly confirmed exoplanets. It is about twice the size of Earth and orbits much closer to its home star, which is 1,743 light-years from Earth.
European Southern Observatory
Gliese 667C system
Some of the strangest exoplanets can be found in the habitable zone of Gliese 667C , which is one of three suns in the triple-star Gliese 667 system. This probably makes for some interesting skyscapes from planets Gliese-667Ce and Gliese-667Cf, the two most likely planets in the system to harbor water (a third planet nearby is also in the habitable zone, but with slightly less favorable conditions for life.)
Kepler 62f was one of the first exoplanets found by the space telescope beginning to approach the size of Earth. Years later, it's still among the best candidates that could be a sister planet to our own.
Efrain Morales Rivera, Astronomical Society of the Caribbean, PHL @ UPR Arecibo
Gliese 832c is a super-Earth just 16 light-years away that could be potentially habitable but probably has some pretty extreme seasons. Perhaps we'll one day find it to be the true home of Westeros?
Gliese 581d is a potentially habitable planet just 20 light-years away. In 20 years we could probably know if it delivers on that potential.
The exoplanet LHS 1140b, which orbits a red dwarf star 40 light-years from Earth, may be the new holder of the title "best place to look for signs of life beyond the solar system." This world is a little larger and much more massive than Earth and has likely retained most of its atmosphere.
A very strange signal reportedly came from the direction of the star HD 164595 in the constellation Hercules, which has at least one confirmed planet, a Neptune-size world in close orbit that would seem unlikely to support life as we know it. Then again, there could be other planets there we haven't seen yet...
There's a number of other potentially habitable exoplanets out there that kind of blend together, most of them discovered by the Kepler Space Telescope and a growing crop observed by TESS. To keep from getting monotonous, we're not listing them all, but the Planetary Habitability Lab does here.
Ben Bromley, University of Utah
When some of us think of life on distant exoplanets, it's hard not to picture dusk on the home world of one young Luke Skywalker. Recently scientists have considered how real planets in binary star systems, just like Tatooine of Star Wars fame, might be able to support life.
Their results were promising, partially validating a primary reason that at least one space nut hopes we continue looking everywhere for life: the hope that Yoda really is still out there somewhere.