This story is part of, CNET's coverage of how to make smart money moves in an uncertain economy.
In an effort to quell stubborn inflation, the Federal Reserve raised interest rates again on Wednesday -- and anticipates more rate hikes in the future.
Why it matters
As the Fed continues to drive up interest rates, there will be consequences: an increase in interest rates for mortgages, credit cards and loans, and most likely an uptick in unemployment.
What it means for you
Rising consumer prices, unpredictable stock prices, increased costs to borrow money and the threat of layoffs could be particularly devastating for low- and middle-income Americans.
The US Federal Reserve increased rates by 75 basis points on Wednesday, marking the fifth -- and likely not the last -- rate hike of the year. As rates rise, the cost of borrowing also becomes more expensive.
This week's rate increase was in response to persistent inflation, which rose by 0.1% from July to August, despite latest Consumer Price Index report.. Though gas prices decreased, the cost of food and housing continues to climb, according to the
"The Fed's monetary policy actions are guided by our mandate to promote maximum employment and stable prices for the American people," Federal Reserve Chair Jerome Powell said during a July press conference. "We anticipate that ongoing increases in the target range for the federal funds rate will be appropriate; the pace of those increases will continue to depend on the incoming data and the evolving outlook for the economy."
Raising interest rates is the main action the Fed can take to try to counter high inflation. When it costs more to borrow -- as withand other -- consumers have less spending power and will buy fewer items, decreasing the "demand" side of the supply-demand equation, theoretically helping to lower prices.
Many worry that further increases to the cost of borrowing money could contract the economy too much,: a shrinking, rather than growing, economy. The Fed acknowledges the adverse effects and potential risks of this restrictive monetary policy.
Here's everything you need to know about what's causing this record high inflation and how the Fed hopes to bring levels back down.
What's happening with inflation?
In August, inflation increased to 8.3% over the previous year, though it has declined slightly from July's 8.5% reading and June's record high 9.1% yearly increase, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics.declined significantly by 10.6% in August -- marking a two-month trend -- but that was offset by increasing prices of food and shelter.
During periods of high inflation, your dollar has less purchasing power, making everything you buy more expensive, even though you're likely not getting paid more. In fact, more Americans are living paycheck to paycheck, and wages aren't keeping up with inflation rates.
Why is inflation so high right now?
In short, a lot of this can be attributed to the pandemic. In March 2020, the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic caused the US economy to shut down. Millions of employees were laid off, many businesses had to close their doors and the global supply chain was abruptly put on pause. This caused the flow of goods produced and manufactured abroad and shipped to the US to cease for at least two weeks, and in many cases, for months, according to Pete Earle, an economist at the American Institute for Economic Research.
But the reduction in supply was met with increased demand as Americans started purchasing durable goods to replace the services they used prior to the pandemic, said Josh Bivens, director of research at the Economic Policy Institute. "The pandemic put distortions on both the demand and supply side of the US economy," Bivens said.
Though the immediate impacts of COVID-19 on the US economy are easing, labor disruptions and supply-and-demand imbalances persist, including shortages in microchips, steel, equipment and other goods, causing ongoing slowdowns in manufacturing and construction. Unanticipated shocks to the global economy have made things worse -- particularly subsequent COVID-19 variants, lockdowns in China (which restrict the availability of goods in the US) and Russia's war on Ukraine (which is affecting gas and food prices), according to the World Bank.
Powell confirmed the World Bank's findings at the Fed's June meeting, calling these external factors challenging because they're outside of the central bank's control.
Some lawmakers have also accused corporations of seizing on inflation as an excuse to increase prices more than necessary, a form of price gouging.
Why is the Federal Reserve raising rates?
With inflation hitting record highs, the Fed is under a great deal of pressure from policymakers and consumers to get the situation under control. One of the Fed's primary objectives is to promote price stability and maintain inflation at a rate of 2%.
By raising interest rates, the Fed aims to slow down the economy by making borrowing more expensive. In turn, consumers, investors and businesses pause on making investments and purchases with credit, which leads to reduced economic demand, theoretically reeling in prices and balancing the scales of supply and demand.
The Fed raised the federal funds rate by a quarter of a percentage point in March, followed by a half of a percentage point in May. It then raised rates by three-quarters of a percentage point in June and July, and now again in September.
The federal funds rate, which now sits at a range of 3% to 3.25%, is the interest rate that banks charge each other for borrowing and lending. And there's a trickle-down effect: When it costs banks more to borrow from one another, they offset it by raising rates on their consumer loan products. That's how the Fed effectively drives up interest rates in the US economy.
However, hiking interest rates can only reduce inflationary pressures so much, especially when the current factors are largely on the supply side -- and are worldwide. A growing number of economists say that the situation is more complicated to get under control, and that the Fed's monetary policy alone is not enough.
Could rising interest rates spark a recession?
We can't yet determine how these policy moves will broadly affect prices and wages. But with more rate hikes projected this year, there's concern that the Fed will overreact by raising rates too aggressively, which could spark a more painful economic downturn or.
The National Bureau of Economic Research, which hasn't yet officially determined if the US is in a recession, defines a recession as a "significant decline in economic activity that is spread across the economy and lasts more than a few months." That means a declining gross domestic product, or GDP, alongside diminishing production and retail sales, as well as shrinking incomes and lower employment.
Pushing up rates too quickly might reduce consumer demand too much and unduly stifle economic growth, leading businesses to lay off workers or stop hiring. That would drive up unemployment, leading to another problem for the Fed, as it's also tasked with maintaining maximum employment.
In a general sense, inflation and unemployment have an inverse relationship. When more people are working, they have the means to spend, leading to an increase in demand and elevated prices. However, when inflation is low, joblessness tends to be higher. But with prices remaining sky-high, many investors are increasingly worried about a coming period of, the toxic combination of slow economic growth with high unemployment and inflation.
Here's what higher interest rates mean for you
For the past two years, interest rates had been at historic lows, partially because the Fed slashed rates in 2020 to keep the US economy afloat in the face of pandemic lockdowns. The Fed kept interest rates near zero, a move made only once before, during the financial crisis of 2008.
For the average consumer, increased interest rates meansor a , since you'll pay more in interest. Higher rates could make it more expensive to refinance your mortgage or . Moreover, the Fed hikes will drive up interest rates on , meaning that your debt on outstanding balances will go up.
Securities and crypto markets can also be negatively impacted by the Fed's decisions to raise rates. When interest rates go up, money is more expensive to borrow, leading to less liquidity in both the crypto and stock markets. Investor psychology can also cause markets to slide, as cautious investors may move their money out of stocks or crypto into more conservative investments, such as.
On the flip side, rising interest rates could mean a. Interest rates on savings deposits are directly affected by the federal funds rate. Several banks have already increased annual percentage yields, or APYs, on their and in the wake of the Fed's rate hikes.