The first track from Spears' forthcoming album stole the top spot away from teen rapper Soulja Boy's megahit "Crank That," which had spent most of the past 12 weeks at No. 1 on Nielsen SoundScan's digital-songs chart.
"Gimme More" also shot to No. 3 on the Billboard Hot 100 singles chart, Spears' highest ranking there since her debut single, "...Baby One More Time," peaked at No. 1 in 1999. The Hot 100 is based on radio airplay, downloads and Internet streaming.
Spears' latest song was issued for digital downloads on September 25 after nearly three weeks of airplay and was lodged at No. 68 on the Hot 100 chart the week, before its commercial release.
Soulja Boy's "Crank That" remained at the top of the Hot 100 for the week ending September 30, followed at No. 2 by the Kanye West hit "Stronger," Billboard said.
Spears' chart success follows a tumultuous year in the singer's personal life as she struggles to rejuvenate her recording career.
On Wednesday, lawyers for Spears and her ex-husband, Kevin Federline, were due back in court for a hearing before the Los Angeles judge who earlier in the week ordered Federline to take sole custody of their two young sons until further notice.