If you have configurated properly on bios, i.e. master with HD switched to master a.s.o. most probably you have a driver problem. It depends on which chipset has your motherboard. VIA chipsets are really a pain.. because of the poor reliability of it's drivers.
So I suggest: Identify the chipset. It is easier if it is a Intel, because Intel provides a utility in order to identify which.
If it'is a branded PC, look at the support page and get the chipset from there.
Look at the device manager My Computer >> right button>>Properties>>Hardware>Device Manager tab>> look at H disk and check the properties in detail. Which drivers,from whom, details.
Microsoft update, if you have selected automatic updates has the nasty behaviour of replace original drivers whith Microsoft's ones, which are all a piece of...
So, or roll back or better find the latest either on manufacturer (mobo) support page or at the chipset mfct. web site.
If you have an older PC , you should download the last and a previous Windows certificated drivers, because the last ones may not work properly.
If everithing goes ok, take note of version, keep a copy of the sys file,and eventually dll's and do not allow windows to change or update automatically : choice must be yours not Microsoft.