I suspect the answer is no. The key being that straight talk uses verizon and verizon is a CDMA based system and ATT is GSM based. Now once both go to LTE for data then the answer would be maybe.
The second issue you have with most the devices you buy from walmart and most other places is that they are locked to the carriers so you could not use your ATT card on say Tmobile even though both are GSM.
If you know people who have it working buy what they use. Be aware even though many plans say unlimited internet they mean using a phone which is very limited and connecting the phone to a pc "tethering" is not allowed by many plans. Hard to say what they can do to you if you tether on a prepaid plan other than cut you off. You are best off buy a device that is designed to hook to a PC if they offer it.
since i did not plan to use wireless networks on my vacation for my laptop very much i purchased a at&t turbo connect 3g card at walmat for $100.00 and a 1gb time card for $50.00. well, on this trip i found a permanent location for my camper in the moutains of north georgia. in that location almost everyone uses straight talk for their wireless service $45.00 a mo. for unlimited talk,texting, and internet. my question is can i use the at&t usb turbo card with straight talk or do i need to buy another wireless card? i also have a netgear w111 rangemax usb card.