The email system we most use is based on standards such as POP3/SMTP. Microsoft has been flirting with some "vanishing digital ink" in which their email system will eat emails after some time and offer what you asked for.

However, in light of recent corporate scandels about deleting email, it seems like such will never make it onto the market.

Short answer? Since pop3/smtp must forward emails to deliver such, the answer is no.