Nothing you can do because there's two possible solutions to this problem.
#1: Reinstall the OS, which you say you can't do because you don't have it with you
#2: Replace the HDD, which would probably be difficult given the region
So, unfortunately, your friend's what we in the trade call screwed.
If the system is still under warranty, that is valid anywhere in the world, and you can go to any AASP, it doesn't have to be an Apple store. The problem is that they probably won't have an english language restore disc, so it likely won't do you much good even if you found a place.
My friends computer had the screen popup that says to shut your computer down and restart, butnow it won't get past the apple logo. We our traveling through Central America so taking it to an apple store is not possible at the moment and she doesn't have a startup disk. I ran command s for single user mode it came back with;
** checking journaled HFS plus volume.?
** Extents Overflow file.?
** Checking Catalog file.?
Missing thread record (id = 3992
Incorrect number of thread records
** checking multi-linked files.?
** checking catalog hierarchy.?
** Checking Extended Attributes files
** checking volume bitmap
Volume bitmap needs minor repair
** checking volume information
Invalid volume file count
(it should be 690478 instead of 690476)
Invalid volume directory count
(it should be 159326 instead of 159323)
invalid volume free block count
(it should be 4774249 instead of 4774251)
Volume header needs minor repairs
** repairing volume.?
Missing directory record (id = 39928
**the volume Macintosh HD could not be repaired.?
/dev/rdisk0s2 (hfs) EXited with signal 8
Sorry I know that's a lot but if anyone can help and let me know what I can do, that would be great!
It's a MacBook ox 10.5 I think.