1. So how do I configure the ports on Windows XP?
I would allow both UDP and TCP.
2. Is there a way to confirm that they're open?
See the X server function.
Remember that I've run this Xserver and while it was interesting I never bothered to look at netstat. Neat idea but you may be over analyzing. This open source project has source, a mailing list and more documentation for you to read. I will share that it worked fine for me but I can see that today's owners may rail against this sort of software as too 1970's.
I have an application that needs to use port 177/UDP and ports 6000-6005/TCP. (The application is cygwin Xserver) I used the Windows XP firewall configuration screen to open these ports. However when the netstat command does not show that these ports are configured correctly. Netstat shows ports 6000-6005 using UDP protocol instead of TCP as I specified in the configuration. Port 177 doesn't even show up in netstat output! I get the same netstat results with the firewall turned off. So how do I configure the ports on Windows XP? Is there a way to confirm that they're open?