While it's harder to do, the answer has to be that such is possible. But the answer to "can anyone"? is no. Even a smartphone takes someone with the skills and access to the phone so by posing the question as "can anyone" the answer is no.
If you feel this is a problem you can always turn the phone off or leave it behind in the situations you fear you would be recorded.
Since Nokia 150 has an OS, can anyone install malware on my phone; like stuff used to record conversations going on in the vicinity etc.