1: Why did you post a new question at the end of an old discussion?
2: Mac OS X has absolutely NOTHING like what you describe built in. I suspect you're confusing OS X's sudo prompt for something it's not.
Now, long story short, the only way you're going to be able to have everything you want in a program, is for it to be supported in the filesystem, and with Windows you have FAT and NTFS as your choices. Neither of which support anything even approaching this.
What you want SOUNDS simple, until you come across someone with a little actual programming experience, who will tell you this would require a pretty significant reworking of some major Windows components. You'd need to update the filesystem to support a specific kind of ACL, then work the file management APIs to support those as well. Then you have to wrap all that into a pretty GUI. And even then, any external devices would have to use the same filesystem, or you'd have to create a failsafe in the file manager APIs so that it will refuse to copy a file from one filesystem to another, which would greatly upset people who wouldn't be able to figure out why they can't copy some file or directory.
I don't think there's an OS out there that has anything like what you want. Mostly because there are better ways of doing it. Just like a better way of asking this question would have been to make a new topic instead of hijacking an old thread.