First, let's make sure you're referring to Microsoft Outlook and NOT Outlook Express.. They're two different things and it needs to be clarified by you.
If the MS Outlook mail is stored on an Exchange service, then yes, simply set up Outlook on a second machine, connect it to the Exchange using the correct settings, and you'll see your Exchange mail.
On the other hand, if you're using Outlook from a POP3 account from your Internet Service Provider, AND you've downloaded your mail to your computer, then it's going to be a little more difficult..
First, if your ISP has internet mail, you should be able to connect to your ISP's website, then use the Internet Mail to send and receive messages. You won't be seeing any messages that have been downloaded to your computer from the server but you'll be able to send and receive from the internet.
Next, if you want to retrieve those messages to a second machine, you'll need to remove the hard drive from the infected computer and copy the Outlook message file (usually Outlook.pst) to the clean computer, then open it using Outlook.
Of course, you haven't explained what you've done to clean up the computer.. We might be able to remove the virus IF you give us more information about the operating system, make and mode., and what you've already done to clean out the infection.
Hope this helps and let us know more.