If you have OEM license of Windows, you can't because OEM license is tight to the hardware. "R. Proffitt"'s post stated Microsoft will issue you a new key when you tell them the motherboard had failed.
I had Windows 7 Ultimate. Upgraded to Windows 8, then 10 Pro. Unfortunately, like you, my motherboard / CPU failed. I build another one, move my drives (SSD, HDD, DVD, etc). When my build is complete, I start it up. Within a few minutes, my system is up and running. The old one (Q6600) did not have UEFI, but the new does, so I didn't encounter that problem. Once it's up, I check Device Manager under Computer Management, all drivers are OK, there are no missing drivers. BUT, I do see some old one hanging around after showing hidden ones and searching registry.
Now my Windows is running fine but Event Log is kind busted, Performance Counter is not working. I did plan to reinstall / refresh my build but never get around it.
BUT, before you do anything, perform a complete backup. EASEUS ToDo Backup (FREE) works great and it has incremental backup (save space and time). People swears by Mericum Reflect. I used it, it works. But I prefer other solutions. I am now using Paragon Backup and Recovery 16 while evaluating ToDo Backup.
Please go to your motherboard / GPU / interface card manufacture to download all device drivers, BIOS update, etc and put them on your SSD so you can update them once your system is up and running. I "believe" Microsoft installs generic drivers when you perform this type of "upgrade". Acronis Image, I used previously, has the restore to different hardware function. I have used it and Windows needs to be reactivated. Other software, some needs to be reactivated / deactivated. Office comes to mind on that aspect.
Before you do it, please be sure to backup - complete backup is needed.
I have my data drive separated from my OS drive, so I only have to backup the OS drive. Save me a lot of trouble / space.