If you do without the sudo, you get a lighter readout. It gives you all the data on the computer and the motherboard hardware, the system used, etc,.
This command is used to list files available in your Linux operating system. If you are in the root folder then you can type ls command in your terminal. you will see list of the files available in the root folder. For example: as you see in the image below I have entered ls command. it is showing currently available files in my root folder.
you can see the complete list of commands by clicking https://www.techtuber.in/mostly-used-and-popular-basic-linux-commands-for-beginners-with-linux-commands-list-2019/