XP doesn't have the latest SP installed and the 10 or so drivers that Microsoft didn't supply. Use this link as an example -> http://forums.cnet.com/5208-7587_102-0.html?forumID=69&threadID=271360&messageID=2699006#2699006
Even your P4 could need (and 99% of the time does) the motherboard and other drivers.
The cause is not in your post but there are clues that the machine has some missing drivers.
computer P4, 1gb ram, XP installed, 180 GB hd. computer does not recognize printer. a picture comes on showing the connection between printer and computer, trying to recognize printer. it does not complete the installation, an big X appears on the screen. could some one help me.