Declaring War on the United States (1992-1996)
Old Terrorism to the New: The First World Trade Center Bombing
Adaptation--and Nonadaptation--in the Law Enforcement Community
Bombings in Kenya and Tanzania
We believe the 9/11 attacks revealed four kinds of failures: in imagination, policy, capabilities, and management.
And ?Who's management??
He's not red or blue, right or left, super regions or Dem. or Rep. (he is just wrong)
(The people of the United States hoped to enjoy a peace dividend, as U.S. spending on national security was cut following the end of the Soviet military threat.)
we have tried to remember that we write with the benefit and the handicap of hindsight. Hindsight can sometimes see the past clearly?with 20/20 vision. But the path of what happened is so brightly lit that it places everything else more deeply into shadow. Commenting on Pearl Harbor,Roberta Wohlstetter found it ?much easier after the event to sort the relevant from the irrelevant signals.After the event,of course,a signal is always crystal clear; we can now see what disaster it was signaling since the disaster has ccurred. But before the event it is obscure and pregnant with conflicting meanings.?1 As time passes,more documents become available,and the bare facts of what happened become still clearer.Yet the picture of how those things happened becomes harder to reimagine, as that past world, with its preoccupations and uncertainty,recedes and the remaining memories of it become colored by what happened and what was written about it later.With that caution in mind,we asked ourselves,before we judged others,whether the insights that seem apparent now would really have been meaningful at the time,given the limits of what people then could reasonably have known or done. We believe the 9/11 attacks revealed four kinds of failures: in imagination, policy, capabilities, and management. 11.1 IMAGINATION Historical Perspective The 9/11 attack was an event of surpassing disproportion. America had suffered surprise attacks before?Pearl Harbor is one well-known case, the 1950 Chinese attack in Korea another. But these were attacks by major powers. While by no means as threatening as Japan?s act of war, the 9/11 attack was in some ways more devastating. It was carried out by a tiny group of people, 339
To understand these events, we attempted to reconstruct some of the con-text of the 1990s.Americans celebrated the end of the Cold War with a mixture of relief and satisfaction. The people of the United States hoped to enjoy a peace dividend, as U.S. spending on national security was cut following the end of the Soviet military threat.