1. Domain Name System (DNS), a locator service in Windows, is an industry-standard protocol that locates computers on an IP-based network. IP networks, such as the Internet and Windows networks, rely on number-based addresses to process data. Users however, can more easily remember name addresses, so it is necessary to translate user-friendly names (www.microsoft.com) into addresses that the network can recognize (220.127.116.11). Before DNS, a Hosts file was used -- a manually created file residing on a host computer that associates host names with IP addresses -- still used today in fact.
Note: For instance, Host name addresses such as www.yahoo.com are addresses you see and may use every day and are what we recognize as intellectual information. IP addresses are numbers such as 18.104.22.168 that mean the same thing and which the computers uses to actually find the sites. Even though a user may use either the ''Host'' or ''IP address'' as a site address using Internet Explorer, the computer must first look up and translate the ''Host name'' to an ''IP address'' before a connection is made.
2. DNS Servers map IP addresses to computer names and computer names to IP addresses. By doing so, they provide the mechanism to locate network resources. The DNS WMI Provider allows applications to interact with DNS Servers through the unified management framework of Windows Management Instrumentation (WMI). A DNS Server is a computer that completes the process of name resolution in DNS and contains zone files that enable them to resolve names to IP addresses and IP addresses to names. When queried, a DNS Server will respond in one of three ways:
? The server returns the requested name-resolution or IP-resolution data.
? The server returns a pointer to another DNS Server that can service the request.
? The server indicates that it does not have the requested data.
3. A DNS zone is a set of files or records (more precisely, a database of resource record entries) that corresponds to part of the DNS hierarchical name space. DNS zones are used to delineate which DNS Servers are responsible (authoritative) for resolving name-resolution queries for a given section of the DNS hierarchy. DNS zones differ from the domain structure in the following fashion: zones can be composed of one or more DNS domains. One zone in the gadgets.widgets.microsoft.com domain tree might be authoritative for the gadgets and widgets domains.
4. DNS WMI Provider Overview
a. A provider is an architectural element of Windows Management Instrumentation (WMI). WMI defines a unified architecture for describing, accessing, and instrumenting objects. Part of this architecture is a large database of WMI classes used to carry out remote management tasks on specific objects.
b. WMI providers act as intermediaries between WMI and one or more managed objects. When WMI receives a request from a management application for data that is not available from the CIM repository or for notifications of events that WMI does not support, it forwards the request to a provider. Providers supply data and event notifications for managed objects that are specific to their particular domain. A provider extends the WMI schema of classes to allow WMI to work with new types of objects. The DNS WMI Provider defines classes for querying and configuring a DNS Server, along with its associated DNS zones and DNS records.
c. The DNS WMI provider exposes a number of DNS objects to clients, including DNS Server, DNS domain, and DNS RR objects. Through those objects, clients are able to perform DNS management activities.
a. ''HOW TO: Configure Windows XP TCP/IP to Use DNS (Q305553).''
b. ''Logging WMI Activity.''
c. ''Reinstalling WMI.''
d. ''Secrets of Windows Management Instrumentation.''
6. The article [Q175722] describes the following errors you may receive when starting Internet Explorer, suggests troubleshooting procedures, and discusses the reasons for the anomaly below:
? The page cannot be displayed
? The page you are looking for is currently unavailable. The Web site might be experiencing technical difficulties, or you may need to adjust your browser settings.
? Cannot find server or DNS Error
a. Multiple copies of the Wsock32.dll file are installed on your computer.
b. An incorrect version of the Wsock32.dll file is installed on your computer.
c. If you try to view a file (file://) you do not have permissions to view.
d. Intermittent connection problems, low system resources, and dropped connections while attempting to load the Web page.
e. You are using America Online as your Internet service provider, and there is not a Dial-Up Adapter installed, but there is an AOL Adapter.
f. Unable to resolve the DNS name, or the DNS server returned an error.
g. Corrupted cookies can also cause this issue with Internet Explorer 5.
h. The Internet Explorer connection settings for the dial-up connection are configured to use a proxy server.
a. Download and follow the instructions for ''IEFix'' - a general purpose fix for Internet Explorer (Win 98/ME/2000/XP):
Note: Else, some of the core Internet Explorer ''?.dll files'' may not be correctly registered or need registering. First, verify the exact path of where the Iexplore.exe file is found and used as noted for the ''Primary. . .'' example. Second, click Start, Run, type exactly ''Primary Hard Drive Letter:\Program Files\Internet Explorer\iexplore.exe'' /rereg, and then either click OK or press Enter.
? Registers Urlmon.dll, Mshtml.dll, Actxprxy.dll, Oleaut32.dll, Shell32.dll, Shdocvw.dll, [Q281679].
? Refreshes Internet Explorer using IE.INF method. Note:
''Unable to Install Internet Explorer 6 on Windows XP (Q304872)''
''How to Reinstall or Repair Internet Explorer and Outlook Express in Windows XP (Q318378)''
? Initiates ''SFC /Scannow'' (Win2K&XP), [Q310747].
Caveat: Using IEFix myself, the utility does not suggest or require a reboot, but I do suggest that you do. In addition, if an extra icon for IE is located on the Desktop afterwards, you may delete it.
b. ''WinSock XP Fix'' (Image) offers a last resort if your Internet connectivity has been corrupted due to invalid or removed registry entries. It can often cure the problem of lost connections after the removal of Adware components or improper uninstall of firewall applications or other tools that modify the XP network and Winsock settings. If you encounter connection problems after removing network related software, Adware or after registry clean-up; and all other ways fail, then ''download'' and give WinSock XP Fix a try, a 1,412kb file. It can create a registry backup of your current settings, so it is fairly safe to use.
c. ''LSP-Fix'' is a free utility that may be downloaded to repair certain problems associated with Internet software when you can no longer access Web sites due to bugs in the LSP software or deletion of software. LSP-Fix repairs the Winsock LSP chain by removing the entries left behind when LSP software is removed by hand (or when errors in the software itself break the LSP chain), and removing any gaps in the chain.