While the answer is yes you have to check if your usage agreements push the issue to "your choice to connect to our equipment.. We are not liable..." and so on.
Since static discharge is possible you could watch YouTubes and get training on ESD and talk to an electrician about doing a ground and voltage check.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phantom_power puts the power at about 10 Volts at 250mA which should at worst fry the audio section. If they lost the entire laptop, it wasn't this.
I work at an auditorium and have recently received a complaint that our audio out jack has damaged a clients computer. We have an adaptor that sends the computer audio out headphone jack signal through two xlr adaptors and up to our sound board, to play over our speakers. We have never had an issue running this, but have recently been told by a client that when they plugged our adaptor into their headphone jack, it fried their motherboard. Is this possible? If so, how did it happen so I can adapt to this possibility.