You can try creating what's known as a clone or image of the drive, but generally those only work on exactly the same hardware. Say your 500GB HDD fails and you replace it with a shiny new 4TB drive. You might find that when it's all said and done you have a 500GB partition on the 4TB drive and the rest is sitting idle.

Otherwise, there's no method to backup programs and restore them individually. It's a design decision Microsoft made back with Windows 95 and has slowly tightened the screws on with each successive Windows version. You can back up files created by programs, like word processing documents, but not the programs themselves.