I have an all too similar Acer x202e and the HDD from memory was not so good. Since we didn't need space I popped in the 30 buck 120GB SSD.
Try BIOS defaults and see if the HDD shows up. If not time to open it and unplug then plug the HDD back in as a test.
THIS IS A CHEAP PART (the drive.) 500GB HDDs are found for 40bucks but with the price crash of SSD shop for that.
Mine runs W10 very well.
I have a Asus X205T notebook which was working fine until yesterday. I opened it up- after using it only 20 minutes prior- and it said that it encountered an error or something and needed to restart. The BIOS screen showed up but saving&exiting or just exiting puts you right back into the BIOS screen. Holding down the power button and turning it back on does the same thing. Now when I go to the BOOT screen all that is says is BOOT OPTION PRIORITIES and nothing is listed below. Is my hard drive toast or could the connection just be loose or what?