Apple has posted a Knowledge base article (#306048) detailing troubleshooting procedures for an issue where the blue screen of death appears under Windows XP or Vista when attempting to synchronize the iPhone.
Apparently, this problem can happen when photos that were taken on the iPhone camera are being synced backed to the host computer and is caused by outdated software. Apple says:
"If you delete the photos from the iPhone and re-sync, everything will work fine with no blue screen error message appearing."
Apple recommends updating the software drivers for Logitech QuickCam/Webcam products, Lexmark scanners, and some built-in media card reader drivers on the afflicted system.