Unlocking the bootloader and rooting an Android device can be a bit intimidating, if not overwhelming, for those who don't feel comfortable with both the jargon and using the command line to carry out the process.
Even with the most thorough of guides, sometimes the easiest thing to do is wait for a streamlined solution to be released.
In the case of the Verizon Galaxy Nexus, an automated method for unlocking the bootloader as well as rooting is now available. Wug's Galaxy Nexus root toolkit was released earlier in the week, affording Galaxy Nexus owners the ability to unlock and root their device in a few clicks. Currently, the process is only compatible with the Samsung Galaxy Nexus for Verizon, with GSM compatibility coming soon.
The entire process is very easy, and should take less than 20 minutes once you have downloaded and installed the root toolkit.
After you have downloaded and installed the program, run it and you will see the launch screen. In order to unlock or root your Galaxy Nexus, you will need to run the initial setup. Click on the "Drivers + SDK" button.
During the initial setup, all of the required drivers and files will be installed on your computer. Let this run; once it is done you'll be ready to unlock and root.
In order to unlock the bootloader and root, click on the "Unlock + Root" button. Here's where anxiety would normally set in for those who are intimidated by the root process. Fear not, the Galaxy Nexus root toolkit will hold your hand and guide you step by step until you have successfully unlocked the bootloader and rooted your Galaxy Nexus.
You will be presented with instructions and information on each screen alerting you of what you need to do, as well as what is actually being done to the device. Follow the instructions closely, and make sure you actually take the time to read through them. Most of all, be patient. When you are told to wait for the device to boot, wait.
We were able to unlock the bootloader without issue in a relatively short time, but we did run into some trouble during the rooting process. While attempting to reboot into recovery mode, the Galaxy Nexus would start to reboot and then display the dreaded triangle and exclamation point icon. Unplugging the Galaxy Nexus from the computer, closing out the root toolkit program, doing a battery pull on the device, and starting over cleared the issue right up.
You don't need to worry if you are already unlocked but not rooted; the toolkit will recognize your device's unlocked state and skip right to the rooting process.
Should you decide to sell your device down the road, or perhaps you're having issues with it and would like to get it looked at for a warranty replacement, locking and unrooting your device is as simple as clicking on the "Unroot + OEM Stock" button. Again, follow the prompts (there are only a couple this time) and you will have a clean install of Android 4.0 in a few minutes.
Anytime you mess around with files at the system level, there's a chance things can go astray. It's a great idea to educate yourself on the root process before attempting to root, so you know where to begin troubleshooting any issues.
(Source: Android Central)