Just about any digital camera can do what you want.
All have Macro mode, that will let you take photos inches away from the fish.
You should not use flash unless you have the camera lens pressed against the aquarium glass, because you will get a glare off the glass.
A good choice in the $150 to $250 range is the Panasonic ZS15
If you want to start with something less expensive here is what Canon has to offer:
I am interested in trying my hand at photography as a side hobby. I have been reading various reviews of cameras and trying to understand all of the camera jargon. One problem I have is that I have never used a decent camera, so its hard to apply the stuff I read to real world use.
Maybe you guys can help point me in a general direction to help me narrow my search. I do not want to be heavily invested, since I may not like photography after all.
I am interested in taking photographs of the following:
Fish (I keep aquariums), I will need a camera fast enough so the pictures are not blurred when the fish move (like my iphone does). I would also like some kind of macro mode to take pictures of the tiny fry (baby fish). I also go to public aquariums every chance I get and would like to photograph that as well.
Wildlife. I hunt and fish and would like to be able to take pictures while I am out in the field. Some sort of zoom would be nice, I often see deer and various small critters while I am out.
Trips, I guess this goes without saying, but I often go on trips and would like to be able to capture the moments. Mountain scenery, wildlife, Cityscapes, funny signs, landmarks, ect.
Budget wise, if I have to give one would be in the 150-250 range. I can always upgrade if photography is something I do like. I would rather play around with something less expensive to see how I like it and also narrow down some features I would prefer on my next camera.