Boot into "safe mode with networking" hitting F8 during initial boot and then select it from menu. If the USB ports work then, you have a s/w or driver issue. -OR- As already mentioned, you can try a "Ubuntu live CD disc" which has been burnt from the .ISO file, once done properly is wholly bootable OS and see if you can access that way. if it works under one of these conditions there is NO h/w fault but a s/w or driver issue to include any possible malware.
Since, you seem to think it maybe a update could have done this, you can return to a prior date before the update using the "restore point" feature of Win7. Once done and it seems to work, you can blame the update or anything during that time. Your update history if from MS, should explain what update was done and see what it does.
Besides what other posters offered, was there any clue prior to loss of USB ports. Anything acting wonky or got some attention?