It appears like the jack connection from computer to speaker system is wonky. Most of the sound tests are run using an internal signal that lies within the speaker system itself.. Therefore, it tests fine but because the jack doesn't connect as designed, the sound from the computer never reaches the speakers.
Try unplugging, then replugging in the speakers to the green jack on the back of the computer.. If no joy, try borrowing another set of powers speakers and see if they work correctly.. If the second set of speakers work fine, then it probably means the jack on the new wiring isn't working correctly.
Hope this helps.
MSi X58 Pro-E
Realtek HD Audio Drivers