As already stated to you, disconnect entirely the old HD. On your new HD setup and converter, follow whatever instruction needed to to its proper connection. You may still need to re-jumper, etc. before any use can be had. You seem to know that the 1st boot device be CD, good. -OR- depending on your PC brand, you may need to select from boot menu, CD drive. You have to hit some key combo, F10, etc.. Since, you provided NOTHING in the details of the devices and PC involved, this becomes all guess other than what I supplied already. You need to recheck your work and assure it proper and retry again.
Let's not leave out XP OS and SATA setup. It may vary or become difficult because of this. Again, do whatever is needed by the manual or what they gave you. You may need to visit the converter support website, to see how its all done, if nothing was supplied.