If the disk works on another Mac, it's either the drive or the motherboard that needs some care. The typical care for both is replacement.
Don't be surprised if the old hard disk works fine with the a new motherboard.
HDD failed on 15" mid2009 MacBook Pro, purchased a Seagate 1TB hybrid drive (SSHD) to replace it with. Went to boot to USB recovery drive with OS X 10.8 using option/alt on boot and would only get the folder with flashing question mark. Tried command+R also. Tried different USB ports. Tried with HDD pulled out. The USB recovery drive does work because we were able to boot to it from a different MBP, and verified the files on it with Disk Utility. Just can't get any kind of recovery options or anything on this Mac with replaced HDD. Need help. Never encountered anything like this, can't find anything like it online, and none of my coworkers can figure it out. We've all been working comps for yrs, one even an ex apple-tech lol. Thanks for any suggestions!!