The logic behind not having a backup of things you did more than a few months ago eludes me. But that's not very relevant.

You can try to get the disk out and connect to another machine using a USB2 to SATA/IDE-cable. You might be able to copy data, but just as likely (even more likely) it won't show at all, because it has gone south. Then you would need a professional data recovery company to do it for you. Or it might show up, but say it's unformatted. Then some DIY data recovery tool might work. Just try and see.

It depends on your laptop what you can put into it. And it happens on the disks you have available (system recovery, windows + drivers/utilities, none) how to reinstall the OS on a new empty hard disk.