This is why companies have IT staff to get sync working across devices. Android is, well, a deep support issue.
So far I just sync with Google Calendar.
My collegue has a Galaxy S duos GT-S7562. His email account from work (exchange) is added so he can read his mails en use his calendar. Calendar-events made in the phone appear in outlook (software or web-based) and vice versa using 3G.
However, sometimes some events do not appear anymore on the phone while they still do appear on the PC. Altering such an event in outlook makes it reappear immediatly on the phone. Syncing the phone does not.
I have no idea why some events randomly dissappear and reappear on the phone. The correct calendar is used everytime, most of the events are created on the phone itsself.
I called the support line but they claim the only way to sync the phone with exchange is by a cable and their "kies"-software on PC. They did not seem to understand how it synced over the internet using 3G, claiming it to be impossible...