Since that can mean several things.....

I am going to assume that you want to photograph small objects, not small areas of large objects.

You need a camera that will let you manually focus the lens as well as auto focus.

That takes you to the DSLR (digital single lens reflex) cameras.

They start at about $999 and go up.

Lets take the middle ground and say a Canon 20D DSLR.
It sells for about $1,500.
You need a lens and a good choice would be the
Canon EF-S 60mm f2.8 Macro USM
or the
Canon EF 100mm f2.8 Macro USM

Equally important, is lighting for the item you are going to photograph.

You are getting into table-top photography and there are many table-top studio kits on the market.

Here is a link to one:

For a look at a custom budget studio kit, check this link:


Why do you need so much light?

DOF (Depth of Field) - the area that is in sharp focus.

When a lens is used in dim light, the DOF is quite shallow. This is useful in some cases but if it is a 3 dimentional object that you want to photograph, you want more light (more depth of field).

Here is some example photos I took with a Konica Minolta Z2 digital camera:

The photos are unretouched except they were reduced in size and increased .jpg compression to conserve bandwidth.

The model car is 3 inches long.

The first photo was a longer shot and focused on the left door panel. Note that the DOF starts to decline as it reaches the far side of the car. The rocks in the background are well outside the DOF.

The second photo was closer and focused on the dashboard. About the same amount of light.
Note that the DOF just covers the center part of the model car.

So light and distance from the target affect DOF.